1994 - 1995





Williamstown, Massachusetts


The Science Executive Committee wishes to express its gratitude to the extensive efforts of all the science department secretaries in preparing contributions for this publication, and to Alice J. Seeley for assembling this material in its final form.


Editor: Dr. Bryce Babcock


Williams College admits men and women of any background to all the rights, privileges, programs and activities generally accorded or made available to students at the College. It does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, sexual orientation, or national ethnic origin in administration of its educational policies, scholarship and loan programs, and athletic and other college administered programs. The College does not discriminate on the basis of sex in violation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1973, or the regulations thereunder, in the education programs or activities which it operates, including employment therein. The College does not discriminate on the basis of handicap in violation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 1973, or the regulations thereunder, in admission or access to its programs and activities. Inquiries concerning the College's non-discrimination policies may be referred to the Dean of The College, Hopkins Hall, Williamstown, MA 01267.


Students learn science best by formulating and testing their own hypotheses, using methods capable of producing convincing evidence. This is true at the elementary level, where students become interested in further study by encountering science as discovery rather than rote facts. It is even more important at advanced levels, where students are most likely to become interested in science careers by working as fully involved junior colleagues with professionally active faculty on research projects that develop new science. The ability to conduct competitive research at Williams helps to attract talented scientists as faculty and keep them current, so that the full range of science courses keep up with new results and perspectives. For faculty to involve students in research, to produce publishable results, to compete for research funding, to teach effectively in a formal classroom setting, and to continually bring modern ideas into course laboratories requires substantial support in the way of modern facilities, instrumentation, supplies and technical support. Williams College long ago recognized this need. Along with the construction of the Bronfman Science Center in the nineteen sixties we established the kind of facilities and support programs now recommended by studies such as the 1986 National Science Board Task Committee on Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education. As our science buildings have been continually upgraded to provide modern facilities for teaching and student-faculty research, the model of the entire science division as a programmatic unit has persisted. Funds for major equipment, for individual student-faculty research projects, and for stipend support of students doing research with faculty are coordinated on a division-wide basis by the Science Executive Committee and its subcommittees. By working together we are able to share not only facilities and equipment, but also ideas and enthusiasm, and so provide a "critical mass" of activity that might not be possible within an individual department at a small institution.

Over the past several years there has been dramatic growth in the sciences at Williams. Increased enrollments of first-year students with an expressed interest in scientific careers have led to unprecedented numbers of students collaborating with faculty on research projects. As documented later in this report, more than one hundred students were engaged in research with Williams faculty this year. More than sixty students conducted independent research during the academic year. Dozens of Williams students participated in conferences where they presented the results of their research, and more than twenty Williams students co-authored publications in peer-reviewed journals. It has long been recognized that a positive undergraduate research experience is the single most important inspiration for future scientists. In confirmation of this, we have seen a substantial increase in the number of Williams students who have gone on to graduate school in science in the past decade.

Concurrent with the increased student interest in science, Williams has attracted talented and vibrant science faculty engaged in competitive research and dedicated to teaching undergraduates. Correspondingly, the number of external grants awarded to support faculty research or curricular innovations has increased significantly. A large number of individual faculty grants, together with grants from the Essel Foundation, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kresge, NECUSE, and other sources have enabled us to purchase and maintain sophisticated equipment for teaching and research. Centered around close student-faculty interactions, the opportunities in undergraduate science education at Williams are exciting, diverse, and progressive.

Work has begun in earnest on a major expansion of the Science Division that will include laboratories for teaching and research, a centralized science library, and renovation of the Thompson Laboratories. The Board of Trustees approved a $40 million budget for the project and appointed an architectural team chosen by the Science Facilities Building Committee. The team comprises firms who bring particular strengths to the project: Zimmer Gunsul Frasca, design architects; Einhorn Yaffee Prescott, executive architects and engineers; and Earl Walls Associates, laboratory consultants. The architects and building committee are faced with the challenging task of taking the science facilities well into the next century, while maintaining the architectural and historical integrity of the present structures.

Freshman & Sophomore Discovery Courses

Seven years ago Williams College was awarded a five-year grant from the Ford Foundation Initiative for Undergraduate Science Education to support the development of "discovery" courses in the sciences. Although the grant has expired, most of these special introductory science courses have become integral parts of our curriculum. Designed to excite the interest of beginning students through hands-on experiences, the discovery courses are typically taught in a manner that requires students to take a greater responsibility for their own education. They are expected to make observations, formulate hypotheses, gather data, conduct analyses, and evaluate outcomes without the faculty providing them with the anticipated results in advance. The great success of these courses has led to the incorporation of the discovery approach to teaching science in upper-level courses as well.

Observing the Sun and Stars (ASTR 106)

This course is centered on using the solar and nighttime telescopes, including the 24 inch telescope, to observe not only sunspots and other solar activity in the daytime but also stars, nebulae, and galaxies at night. Special equipment includes an electronic CCD detector with computer control to sensitively image celestial objects in a short amount of observing time, and several workstations with special image-reduction software to display the data; this equipment has been provided by a grant from the Keck Foundation to a consortium of colleges of which Williams is a member. Solar observation uses a coronagraph with hydrogen-alpha filter, a coelostat, and a heliostat.

Concepts of Chemistry, Special & Advanced Laboratory Sections (CHEM 106 & 108)

While covering the same lecture material as other introductory chemistry classes, a special, enriched laboratory program includes activities which more closely resemble the unpredictable nature and immediacy of true chemical research. Students synthesize, isolate, and characterize a series of organic/inorganic complexes in a series of closely related experiments using modern analysis techniques in a flexible laboratory format.

Introduction to Computer Science (CSCI 135)

The regular introductory course material is covered at an accelerated rate, providing opportunities to concentrate, during the second half of the course, on exploring exciting new research areas such as innovative architecture for high-speed, parallel computers.

Introduction to Environmental Science (ENVI 102)

Taught by a biologist, a chemist and a geologist, the lectures, readings, laboratories and discussions in this course concentrate on integrating basic aspects of each of these disciplines as they apply to the analysis of environmental problems. Laboratory work includes botanical and geological observation in the field and the use of sophisticated instruments to perform chemical and biologic measurements in the laboratory.

Geology Outdoors (GEOL 105)

An introduction to geology through student field projects and small discussion sessions. The mountains, lakes, rivers and valleys of the Williamstown area provide unusual opportunities for learning geology in the field. Emphasis is placed on learning through active participation in field projects reinforced by group discussion sessions on related readings in geology. Following several group projects introducing the techniques of field geology, small teams are formed to work on independent research projects.

Essel Foundation Grant for Neuroscience

In May of 1992, the college received a grant in the amount of $1,050,000 to support research in the neurosciences. The primary intent of the award is to involve students in state-of-the-art neuroscience research. During the summer of 1993, ten Williams students were selected as Essel fellows. These students spent the summer working in individual faculty laboratories. Most of them continued their research as either honors thesis or independent study students during the 1993-94 academic year. Additionally, two high school students were selected as Essel fellows. These students rotated among the neuroscience laboratories during the summer.

The Essel foundation grant also greatly facilitated the implementation of expanded laboratory exercises in the Introduction to Neuroscience course. In conjunction with the Hughes Foundation Grant and support from the college, a new neuroscience teaching laboratory has been established. Funds were also provided to support two full-time technicians to assist in running this laboratory. The establishment of the laboratory has allowed students in the introductory course to gain hands-on laboratory experience in neuroscience that is not generally available to beginning students. It has also allowed a greater number of students to participate in advanced research.

In future years, the Essel award will continue to fund these programs as well as additional endeavors, including extended visits by prominent neuroscientists, summer research support for faculty, and support for student research during the academic year. The Neuroscience Program is very fortunate to have such generous support for this rapidly growing area of science

Hughes Grant (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

In June 1991 the college received a five year, $900,000 grant for the biological sciences from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The institute awarded grants to 44 public and private colleges and universities for programs designed to attract students into careers in scientific research and teaching. At Williams, the grant is being used to support new and established programs in five areas: 1) introductory courses in biochemistry, biology, and neuroscience; 2) summer science research opportunities; 3) the Summer Science Program for minorities; 4) a Math and Science Resource Center; 5) an outreach program for Berkshire County high school teachers and students.

The grant is particularly timely for the introductory curriculum in biochemistry, biology and neuroscience. Enrollments in these courses have nearly doubled over the last few years and the Hughes grant provides equipment, staff support, and opportunities for curricular development. The grant also funds fellowships for students in the Bronfman Summer Science Research Program and supports additional students and initiatives in the Summer Science Program for minority students. The Math and Science Resource Center, staffed with a part-time director and teaching assistants, help students with course work and laboratory reports in the sciences, and with quantitative skills.

The high school outreach program brings high school biology teachers and students to spend a month with Williams College faculty in biological research. Efforts to tailor these programs to the specific needs of the participants have been well received, and should provide them with a better means of integrating their experiences into their own curriculum.

In September 1993 Williams College was awarded a four-year Howard Hughes Medical Institute grant to augment the five-year grant it received in 1991. The $500,000 grant includes an outreach program to assist the Williamstown Elementary School implement an inquiry-based science curriculum. A science liaison coordinates the activities of Williams undergraduates working with elementary teachers and administrators. In addition, the grant will be used to support undergraduate student research during the summer and to purchase equipment for introductory biology, neuroscience and biochemistry.

Kresge Foundation Equipment Grant

In 1990 Williams was awarded a grant from the Kresge Foundation to replace and update major items of scientific equipment and instrumentation. This three-part grant is being used not only to purchase new equipment, but to support maintenance contracts and the repair of instruments as well. One aspect of the grant is that the College is setting aside endowment funds for the depreciation and eventual replacement of items purchased under the grant.

To date, the College has purchased and is maintaining a 24 inch optical telescope, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with graphite furnace, a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, a transmission electron microscope, an ultraviolet/visible/near infrared spectrophotometer, and an x-ray diffraction instrument with these funds. In conjunction with funds awarded through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute grant, the Kresge grant was recently used to purchase a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer. These expensive pieces of core equipment are heavily used by faculty and students, especially in collaborative research projects.

NECUSE (Pew Charitable Trust)

The New England Consortium of Undergraduate Science Education is made up of 16 universities and colleges, of which Williams is one. The consortium is funded until 1995 by a grant from the Pew Charitable Trust and through contributions made by the member institutions. The purpose of the consortium is to improve science education by bringing together faculty and students of member institutions through conferences, workshops, summer undergraduate research fellowships, and exchange visits. Elsewhere in this report you will find references to NECUSE sponsored summer research students, the SMALL program, curricular developments in various departments, and conferences where Williams students present the results of their research.

New Liberal Arts Program

Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the New Liberal Arts Program involved the development of courses designed for students planning to major outside the sciences. The goal of the program was to increase the awareness of students majoring in the humanities and social sciences of the importance of technology and quantitative reasoning in their major disciplines and in other aspects of modern life. Although the grant has expired, some of the courses developed in this program are still offered including CHEM 113 Chemistry and Crime and MATH 102 Mathematics of Finance. Because of the NLA grant, technological and quantitative material in the Williams curriculum is more prevalent than it might otherwise have been. There are also NLA courses and modules outside the sciences, for example in Studio Art, Music, Political Science and Psychology.


SMALL is a special summer research program in Mathematics and Physics. Students break into groups of about five, each with a student leader and faculty advisor, and work on solving one or more research problems. Each student is a member of two research teams. Recent research areas have included topology, geometry, algebraic geometry, graph theory, combinatorics, differential geometry, number theory, quantum physics, and quasi-crystals.

Major Programs

Departments offer major programs in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, and Psychology. There are coordinate programs in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience, and Science and Technology Studies, and courses are offered in Environmental Studies and in the History of Science. Students can also design interdepartmental majors through the contract major program. Within departments and programs, faculty advisors help students to select individualized major programs that reflect each student's interests, yet satisfy prerequisites for graduate study, medical school or other postgraduate plans.

All Williams students are required to take at least three semester courses in mathematics or science. More than a dozen courses are offered to help provide non-specialists with a broad introduction to particular scientific areas.

The Astronomy Department offers courses for anyone who is interested in studying and learning about the universe, and who would like to be able to follow new astronomical discoveries as they are made. Students can choose between broad non-mathematical survey courses and a more technical introductory course designed for those planning further study in astronomy or another science. As part of the astronomy observing program, all students in the introductory courses use the 24-inch telescope and other telescopes and instruments on the observing deck to study a variety of astronomical objects. The Astronomy major is designed for students with a serious intellectual interest in learning about many aspects of modern astronomy, but who might not have planned to undertake physics and math in the more intensive astrophysics major. The Astronomy major emphasizes understanding the observed properties of the physical systems that comprise the known universe, from the Sun and solar system to the evolution of stars and star clusters, to the Milky Way Galaxy, to external galaxies and clusters of galaxies, out to quasars and active galaxies. Students considering a major in astronomy, or a double major including astronomy, should consult with members of the Department about appropriate beginning courses. The Astrophysics major is designed primarily for students who plan graduate study in astronomy, astrophysics or a related field. The major emphasizes the structure of the universe and its constituents in terms of physical processes. Majors in astrophysics usually begin their program with ASTR 111 Introduction to Astrophysics as well as basic physics courses. Intermediate and advanced level seminars introduce astrophysics majors to current research topics in astronomy, while parallel study of physics completes their preparation for graduate work in astronomy or employment in a related field. Independent research, extensive use of the observational and image processing computer facilities, field work at remote observatories or on eclipse expeditions and close working relationships with faculty are hallmarks of the Astronomy and Astrophysics majors.

The Biological Sciences are in the midst of a renaissance that is reforming our entire view of living systems. Significant breakthroughs are occurring at all levels; from the theoretical to the practical, from health related fields to environmental studies, from animal behavior to molecular biology and biochemistry. In response to these needs the Biology curriculum has been designed not only to keep pace with new developments in the field, but also to afford students as broad a base as possible for understanding principles governing life processes. Four courses: BIOL 101 The Cell, BIOL 102 The Organism, BIOL 202 Genetics, and a 400 level senior seminar are required for the major. In addition, five electives may be selected from a wide range of courses including those in cellular biology, immunology, biochemistry, molecular biology, developmental biology, physiology, neurophysiology, ecology and animal behavior. Every course emphasizes the latest concepts and introduces techniques and instrumentation used in modern biological research. Although the Biology major is specifically designed to provide a balanced curriculum in the broader context of the liberal arts for any interested student, it is also an excellent preparation for graduate studies in medicine and life sciences.

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Program is designed to provide students with an opportunity to explore living systems in molecular terms. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology are dynamic fields that lie at the interface between biology and chemistry. Current applications range from the diagnosis and treatment of disease to enzyme chemistry, developmental biology, and the engineering of new crop plants. After completing the introductory biology and chemistry courses and organic chemistry, a student would normally take core courses in the program: BIMO 321 Biochemistry I - Structure and Function of Biological Molecules, and BIMO 322 Biochemistry II - Metabolism. These courses, taken in conjunction with courses in genetics and molecular genetics, establish a solid background in biochemistry and molecular biology. The advanced courses, including BIMO 406 Topics in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and electives available from the Chemistry and Biology Department offerings, encourage students' exploration of individual interests in a wide variety of topics. Completion of the BIMO Program provides exceptional preparation for graduate study in all aspects of biochemistry, molecular biology, and the medical sciences.

Through a variety of individual courses and sequential programs, the Chemistry Department provides an opportunity for students to explore chemistry, an area of important achievement for knowledge about ourselves and the world around us. For those who elect to major in chemistry, the introductory courses, CHEM 101, 102 Concepts of Chemistry (or CHEM 103, 104 for those who qualify) are followed by intermediate and advanced courses in organic, inorganic, physical, and biochemistry which provide thorough preparation for graduate study in chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry, environmental science, medicine and the medical sciences. Advanced independent study courses focus the knowledge learned earlier and provide the opportunity to conduct original research in a specific field. For those who elect to explore the science of chemistry while majoring in other areas, the Chemistry Department offers a variety of courses which introduce the fundamentals of Chemistry in a context designed to provide students with an enriching understanding of our natural world. Nonmajors may investigate chemistry through the following courses: CHEM 113 Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Modern Forensic Science and CHEM 115 AIDS: The Disease and Search for a Cure.

Computers play an enormously important role in our society. The Computer Science Department seeks to provide students with an understanding of the principles underlying computer science that will enable them to understand and possibly participate in exciting research developments in this young field. The department recognizes that students' interests in computer science vary widely and attempts to meet these varying interests through 1) its major program; 2) a selection of courses intended primarily for those who are interested in a brief introduction to computer science or who seek to develop some specific expertise in computing for applications in some other discipline and 3) recommendations for possible sequences of courses for the non-major who wants a more extensive introduction to computer science. Macintosh computers, and powerful SUN workstations, connected via an Ethernet network, enhance computing opportunities for students at all levels. The first course for majors and others intending to take more than a single computer science course is CSCI 134 Introduction to Computer Science, with CSCI 135 available as an enriched version for selected first and second-year students. Upper level courses include computer organization, algorithm design, computer graphics, principles of programming languages, artificial intelligence, theory of computing, operating systems and compiler design. The computer science major is designed to provide preparation for advanced study of computer science and high level career opportunities, as well as simply a deeper appreciation of current knowledge and the challenges of computer science. For those students interested in learning more about important new ideas and developments in computer science, but who are not necessarily interested in developing extensive programming skills, the department offers two courses. CSCI 109 introduces students to the techniques of computer graphics used for special effects in film, visualization in the sciences and the creation of artistic images. CSCI 108 provides a similar introduction to the field of Artificial Intelligence.

Historically, the Program in Environmental Studies commenced soon after the Center for Environmental Studies was established in 1968. This program allows students to major in a conventional department and take a series of courses in an integrated, interdisciplinary examination of the environment. The intent of the program is to both broaden the student's experience in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences and to simultaneously explore the relationship between the discipline that she or he is specializing in and the larger environmental arena. The Center maintains and operates the 2400-acre Hopkins Memorial Forest and its Rosenburg Center field station, 1.5 miles from campus. The CES also shares responsibility with the Bronfman Science Center for operating the Environmental Analysis Laboratory in Bronfman.

During 1991 the Hopkins Forest acquired a 90-acre parcel known as the "Driver Lot" through a gift from an anonymous donor. This land has particular importance since it completes the holdings of the Forest in the South Branch of Birch Brook, upstream of the stream gauging station that was installed by the US Forest Service in the 1930s. In the summer of 1992 the vegetation of the Driver Lot was inventoried and the data collected was added to the substantial data base on vegetation, meteorology, hydrology, and land-use that is maintained on the Forest. This past year the Hopkins Forest served as the major focus in the ENVI 102 Introduction to Environmental Science course. The object of this field and lab course, was to integrate perspectives on biological, geological, and chemical processes using a 60-acre tract known as the "Moon Lot" as a case study. Courses in ecology, field botany, studio art, geology, and various winter study offerings also made excellent use of the Hopkins Forest facilities.

The Geology major is designed to provide an understanding of the physical and biological evolution of the earth. Forces within the earth are responsible for the development of mountain ranges and ocean basins. Wind, waves, rivers and glaciers have shaped the surface of the earth, providing the landscapes we see today. Fossils encased in sedimentary rocks supply evidence for the evolution of life and record the history of the earth. Five introductory courses open to all students include: GEOL 101 Earth History and Evolution of Life, GEOL 102 The Shifting Earth, GEOL 103 Environmental Geology and the Earth's Surface, GEOL 104 Oceanography and GEOL 166 Climates Through Time. A special course limited to twelve freshmen, GEOL 105 Geology Outdoors, presents geology through field work and small group discussions. Courses in the major are designed to provide a foundation for a professional career in the earth sciences, a background for commercial activity such as the marketing of energy or mineral resources, or simply an appreciation of our human heritage and physical environment as part of a liberal arts education. Students often choose electives so as to concentrate in a particular field: for example, environmental geology, oceanography, stratigraphy and sedimentation, or petrology and structural geology. In addition, GEOL 206 Geological Sources of Energy, and GEOL 208 Water and the Environment offer surveys of these areas for both non-majors and majors, and especially for those concentrating in Environmental Studies.

History of Science, fundamentally an interdisciplinary subject, traces the historical development of the social relations between science and society as well as the development and mutual influence of scientific concepts. The "external" approach emphasizes the relations between science and society, attempting to relate changes and developments in each to the other. The "internal" approach concerns primarily the ways in which technical ideas, concepts, techniques, and problems in science developed and influenced each other. Courses offered in the History of Science Program introduce students who do not major in a science to the content and power of the scientific and technological ideas and forces which have in the past transformed western civilization and which are today transforming cultures the world over. Science majors are introduced to the historical richness and variety of scientific activity, as well as to how that activity reflects upon the changing nature of science itself, and upon science's relationship to society as a whole.

The major program in Mathematics is designed to meet two goals: introducing some of the central ideas in a variety of areas in mathematics, and developing problem-solving ability by teaching students to combine creative thinking with rigorous reasoning. The math major includes special recommendations to students interested in applied mathematics or other sciences, engineering, graduate school in mathematics, statistics and actuarial science, and teaching. The major requires calculus, a course in applied/discrete mathematics, three core courses in algebra and analysis, electives, a senior seminar, and participation in the undergraduate colloquium.

Neuroscience is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field concerned with understanding the relationship between brain, mind, and behavior. The interdisciplinary nature of the field is apparent when surveying those who call themselves neuroscientists. Among these are anatomists, physiologists, chemists, psychologists, philosophers, computer scientists, linguists, and ethnologists. Combining this wide range of disciplines and areas of research for the study of a single remarkably complex organ, the brain, requires a unique interdisciplinary approach. The Neuroscience Program is designed to provide students with the opportunity to explore this approach. It consists of five courses, including an introductory course, three electives, and a senior course. In addition, students are required to take two courses, BIOL 101, and PSYC 101, as prerequisites to the program. Introduction to Neuroscience NSCI 201 is the basic course and provides the background for other neuroscience courses. Ideally, this will be taken in the Freshman or Sophomore year. Either BIOL 101 or PSYC 101 serves as the prerequisite. Electives are designed to provide in-depth coverage including laboratory experience in specific areas of neuroscience. At least one elective course is required in Biology Group A and in Psychology Group B. The third elective course may also come from Group A or Group B, or may be selected from offerings from other departments. Topics in Neuroscience NSCI 401 is designed to provide an integrative culminating experience. Most students will take this course in the senior year.

The major program in Physics serves as preparation for further work in pure or applied physics, other sciences, engineering, medical research, science teaching and writing, and other careers requiring insight into the fundamental principles of nature. Physics students experiment with the phenomena by which the physical world is known, and the mathematical techniques and theories that make sense of it. They become well grounded in the fundamentals of the discipline: classical mechanics, electrodynamics and optics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and quantum mechanics. In addition, many students take special courses on such topics as condensed matter physics and electronics. Typically, about half of our physics majors do senior honors projects, in which the student works together with a faculty member in either experimental or theoretical research.

The twelve regular faculty members of the Psychology Department offer a wide variety of curricular and research opportunities to both major and nonmajor students. Courses are grouped into the areas of biological psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. After completing PSYC 101 Introductory Psychology, majors follow a sequence of preparation in the PSYC 200 level, advanced PSYC 300 - level courses, and a senior seminar. A wide variety of research opportunities are offered through independent study, senior thesis work and the summer program. The psychology major provides sound preparation for graduate study in both academic and professional fields of psychology and is increasingly relevant to careers in business, law, and medicine.

Science and Technology Studies (STS) is an interdisciplinary program concerned with science and technology and their relationship to society. Relatively less concerned with distant historical development and philosophical understanding of the ideas and institutions of science and technology, SCTS focuses more on current ethical, economic, social and political implications. Although many of us acknowledge that science and technology have played a major role in shaping modern industrial societies, few of us, including scientists and engineers, possess any critical or informed understanding of how that process has occurred or much knowledge of the complex technical and social interactions that direct change in either science or society. The STS program is intended to help students interested in these questions create a coherent course of study from amongst a broad range of perspectives provided in the curriculum. Courses examine the history of philosophy of science and technology, the sociology and psychology of science, the economics of research and development and technological change, science and public policy, technology assessment, technology and the environment, scientometrics and ethical value issues. To complete the requirements of the program, students must complete six courses. The introductory course and senior seminar are required and three elective courses are chosen from the list of designated electives. Students may choose to concentrate their electives in a single area such as Technology, American Studies, Philosophy, History of Science, Economics, Environment, Current Science or Current Technology, but are encouraged to take at least one elective in History, History of Science or Philosophy. The sixth course necessary to complete the program is one semester of laboratory or field science in addition to the College's three course science requirement.

Winter Study Science Offerings

The January Winter Study Period (WSP) at Williams offers a unique opportunity for concentrated study and research in science. It is particularly valuable for senior thesis research students who are able to devote their full time for a month to their developing projects. Many departments also offer research opportunities to sophomores and juniors during WSP. Projects of lesser complexity than senior thesis projects also are undertaken, often with guidance from more experienced students as well as the supervising faculty member. In addition, the science departments offer many interesting and unusual opportunities to students regardless of whether they intend a science major. Full descriptions of science WSP offerings can be found in the Williams College Bulletin. A few highlights of the 1994 WSP science offerings are given below:

ASTR 016 Observational Astronomy

This course, meant for non-majors, will focus on the most basic aspects of astronomy and will be observing-intensive, taking full advantage of various telescopes housed on the Williams College observing deck. Topics to be covered will include the constellations and night sky in general, stars, planets, the moon, and the sun. Study of these topics will require a mix of both day and night class sessions during which students will be required to make observations at the telescopes. Student observations will be recorded in drawings, notes, and computer printouts of images.

Observing will take place on all class dates during which the sky is clear. On those days when the sky is cloudy, we will do in-class exercises or discuss topics in astronomy, such as the results from the Hubble Space Telescope and from solar eclipses.

BIOL 013 Diet, Exercise, and Metabolism

This course will consider some of the complex interactions between diet, exercise, and the body's metabolism. A partial list of the topics includes: how different types of food are used in the body, how training (exercise) influences metabolism, how metabolism influences performance, changes in metabolism during fasting and starvation, how drugs affect metabolism, and long-term considerations of diet and health.

CHEM 013 Applying the Scientific Method to Archaeology and Paleoanthropology

Archaeological studies, which consider the human impact on the environment, can include materials as recent as nineteenth-century glass, or as old as stone tools from hundreds of thousands of years ago. Paleoanthropology, the study of early human remains, covers materials that are millions of years old. Natural science can answer a wide variety of questions for researchers in the field; not just how old an object is, but also where, how, and sometimes why an object was made. These answers in turn tell us about patterns of human development and settlement, and also help us distinguish forgeries from genuine artifacts.

CSCI 018 Computer Animation

In this course students will learn the fundamental issues facing animators in the fast lane of today's high-end special effects field through hands-on experience under the direction of some of the most talented animators in the business, the Kleiser-Walczak Construction Co., a computer graphics firm specializing in high-end database construction and human figure animation. They developed and own a system for the creation of computer generated actors called "Synthespians" which has been demonstrated in experimental films "Nestor Sextone for President" (1988) and "Don't Touch Me" (1990). They have also worked for PBS and CBS and their feature film work includes "Honey I Blew Up the Kids", "The Pickle", "Stargate", and "Clear and Present Danger". They have also worked on special effects attractions for the Luxor Hotel and for Disney Theme Parks.

The course will consist of lectures in which the field of computer animation will be explored from an historical context, using video tape examples, as well as studio sessions, during which students will learn to use high-end workstations to create 3-D animated sequences of their own design. In addition, students may have an opportunity to participate in the production of actual projects on an intern level.

Geology 010 Geology of the National Parks

A vicarious trip through selected national parks of the United States and Canada with emphasis on the geological basis for their unique scenery. Areas to be studied will be chosen in order to illustrate a wide variety of geologic processes and products. The class will meet most days during the first two weeks for lectures and discussions, supplemented with lab work devoted to the interpretation of topographic and geologic maps and to the study of rock samples. Readings will include a substantial paperback text (Geologic Study of the National Parks and Monuments) as well as short publications of the U.S. Geological Survey and various natural history associations. The second half of the project will involve independent study of topics chosen by the students in preparation for oral presentations during the last week. Independent work might deal with the geologic history of an existing park or with questions relating to proposed or projected parks, monuments, or wilderness areas. A detailed outline and an accompanying bibliography should be submitted at the time of the oral presentation.

Math 010: How to Solve It: The Mathematics of Puzzles and Games

Rubic's Cube, Instant Insanity, Spin Out, The Towers of Hanoi, Nim, The Fifteen Puzzle: all of these puzzles and games, and many more, not only provide hours of fun and frustration, but also have underlying mathematical structures which can be exploited not only to discover solutions or winning strategies, but also to design new puzzles and games. We will examine a variety of such puzzles and games, exploring the ways in which mathematics helps us to both describe, understand, and hopefully(!), solve them.

PHYS 010 Light and Holography

This course examines the art and science of holography. It introduces modern optics at a level appropriate for a student majoring outside of the sciences, giving the necessary theoretical background in lectures and discussion. Students, most of whom have no prior college lab experience, will explore a variety of holographic techniques, from the basic transmission setup to a sophisticated copy technique in which one makes a hologram of a hologram to achieve an image that projects out from the photographic plate.

PSYC 010 Stereotypes in the Media: Explicit and Implicit Messages

The images and messages presented by the media not only reflect but also help shape who we are and what we believe. Among the messages that are transmitted from the media are those concerning stereotypes of and prejudices toward various groups of people (e.g., based on race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, etc.). These messages are sometimes explicit, as in a film about racial conflict, but they are often more implicit, as in the stereotyped depictions of women in a TV commercial. This course will examine both explicit and implicit messages embedded in the media. Regarding the explicit messages, we will watch and discuss several films that are concerned with issues of stereotypes and prejudice. Regarding the implicit messages, students will plan and conduct studies that are designed to examine some of the hidden messages that the media are offering (e.g., television, print advertising, newspaper stories) that are likely to create, perpetuate, or revise various stereotypes and prejudices. A written report of the research findings is required.

During the initial part of the course, the class will meet to go over background material and methodological issues. During the middle part of the course, students will conduct the research and meet with the instructor in small groups. During the last section of the course, the class will meet to watch and discuss films and to discuss the results of the studies. Throughout the course, we will watch and discuss films.


Serving as the home of the Computer Science, Mathematics, and Psychology departments, as well as providing offices and labs for faculty representing all the other science departments, Bronfman Science Center fosters interdisciplinary interaction among all members of the Science Division. Such interaction is encouraged through the use of core equipment and services shared by a number of faculty; through intentional, interdepartmental programs; and to a great extent, simply by the spatial juxtaposition of faculty with common interests regardless of their departmental affiliation. Several Science Center activities promote this further by specifically encouraging discourse among scientists at Williams. This is carried out in many ways, including the informal faculty presentations at Tuesday lunches (both during the summer and academic year), the maintenance of a weekly science calendar, the publication of the Report of Science at Williams, and the faculty lectures sponsored each semester by the local Sigma Xi chapter.

In a real sense, the programs of the Bronfman Science Center lie at the heart of the Science Division. It is here that we carryout such vital functions as the coordination of grant proposals to federal agencies and private foundations, the distribution of more than $150,000 of research funds annually, and the allocation of increasingly precious space within the science division. The faculty and student research projects and summer research opportunities supported by internal divisional funds, as well as those supported by external grants, are detailed below and in the various departmental reports.

In 1994-95, individual Williams College science faculty received over $1,000,000 from active federal grants alone to purchase equipment and to support student-faculty research projects.

Student Summer Research Participation

The summer research activities of more than 110 students were supported by Williams in 1995. Some of these students were entering their senior year and were beginning their honors research. Others entering their sophomore or junior years and were getting their first taste of independent research. Still others were on exchange from sister institutions, funded through the NECUSE program. During the summer of 1994, students were given stipends of $300 per week and free housing. While the support for some of the students was from external grants to individual faculty, the majority were supported either by College funds or educational grants to Williams.

The summer is a relaxed, yet concentrated time, without competing course work to interrupt the collaborative efforts between students and faculty. In addition to the research experience and an annual science division picnic, Bronfman sponsors a weekly Tuesday luncheon that features a lecture by one of the faculty on current research. Summer is truly one of the most enjoyable seasons in Williamstown.

1995 Summer Science Students and Their Faculty Advisors

Sebastian Diaz `98, J. M. Pasachoff
Jennifer Heldman D. Maraziti
Rana Nichols-Kiley J.M. Pasachoff
Tim McConnochie `98 K. Kwitter
Daniel Pierkowski K. Kwitter
Matthew Bachtold `97, G. Meyer
Daniel Bolnick `96 C. Orians
Lauren Burwell `96 N. Roseman
Jonathan Cluett `96 H. Art
Elizabeth Copanas `97 S. Zottoli
Gregory Crowther `95 D. Lynch
Jennifer Danforth `97 D. Clemens
Warren Eng `96 L. Adler
Gail French `96 H. Art
Michelle Gonzales `96 W. Raymond
Bryan Greenhouse `96 N. Roseman
Cynthia Huang `96 S. Zottoli
Karen Lee `97 W. Raymond
David Long `96 G. Meyer
Carolyn McBride `98, D. Smith
Jason Meyers `97 S. Zottoli
Magdalene Moran `96 L. Adler
Franklin Mullins `97 H. Williams
Jennifer Nicholson `96 L. Adler
Tania Shaw `96 W. Raymond
Jonathan Snow D. Lynch
Amy K. Smith `97 C. Orians
Brian Spitzer `96 G. Meyer
Jason Wilder `97 D. Smith
Chara Williams `96 H. Art
Jonah Wittkamper `97 Art/Williams
Michael Wong `96 S. Zottoli
Dawn Biehler `97, H. Art
Timothy Billo `97 H. Art
Emilie Grossman `96 H. Art
Steve Hufnagel `96
John Melesky `98 D. Dethier
Charles Wall `97 H. Art
Christine Carter `96, D. Richardson
Justin Cole `96 R. Evans
C. Chizea-Dennar `96 E. Peacock
Martin deKort A. Koch
Phoebe Glazer `96 D. Richardson
Joshua Gordon `95 C. Lovett
Joshua Hubbard `96 A. Koch
Chia-Yu Hwu `96 H. Markgraf
Jin Kwon `97 D. Dalton
Lawrence Marcus `97 J. Thoman
Michael Miller `96 J. Thoman
Amy Prieto `96 L. Park
Thomas Reid `97 L. Park
Poorab Sangani `97 H. Markgraf
Andrew Selder `97 A. Skinner
Steve Singer `96 D. Dalton
Seddon Thomas `96 R. Evans
Simon van der Plas A. Koch
Frederick Winston `97 J. Thoman
Erin Whitney `96 B. Koehler
Computer Science
A. J. Bernheim `96, D. Bailey
Sarah Calvo `96 T. Murtagh
Leaf Petersen `96 K. Bruce
Kimberley Tabtiang `96 A. Danyluk
Jasper Rosenberg `96 W Lenhart
Laurence Zill `97 W. Lenhart
Mary Ann Hirshfeld `96, D. Dethier
Willard Morgan `96 D. Dethier
Megan Barber `96, Adams/Morgan
Bevin Brennan `97 Adams/Morgan
Deborah Greilsheimer `97 Adams/Morgan
Alex Meadows `96 Adams/Morgan
Balakrishna Narasimhan `97 C. Silva
Jason Schweinsberg `97 R. DeVeaux
Teon Edwards `96 R. DeVeaux
Jennifer Tice `97 T. Garrity
Jonathan Todd `96 E. Burger
Michael Touloumtzis `96 C. Silva
Brian Wecht `97 Adams/Morgan
Alexander Woo C. Adams
Paul Boerner, P. Majumder
Anthony Danese, W. Wootters
M. F. DeCamp `96 J. Strait
Kyle Downey `96 P. Majumder
Jennifer Drake `97 W. Wootters
B. K. Evans `96 J. Strait
Robert Galloway `96 W. Wootters
Joshua Grossman `96 W. Wootters
Scott Hill `97 W. Wootters
Theresa McCaffrey W. Wootters
Ruth O'Gorman `97 P. Majumder
Julie Rapoport `97 P. Majumder
David Allan `96, C. Arroyo
Lisa Blaskey `96 B. Glick
Paul Boxer `95 A. Thapar
Amy Bradfield `96 Fein/Kassin/Goethals
Michael Brush 96 P. Solomon
Lori Chelius `97 A. Thapar
Eric Fish `96 B. Glick
Jason Fogler `95 G. Goethals
Sarah Heidel `96 B. Glick
Holly Hodgson `96 Fein/Kassin/Goethals
Lisa Matus `96 E. Donahue
Seth Mehr `96 B. Glick
Sonya Mehta `96 P. Solomon
Todd Poret `96 K. Kirby
Peter Everett `96 W. Wootters
Doris Quintanilla `96 Heatherington/Kavanaugh
Amanda Silver `96 P. Solomon
Frank Vigorito `97 C. Arroyo
Heather Westergren `96 P. Cramer

Summer Science [Pre-Freshman Program]

Sabrina Assoumou'98
John Berry `98
Lafiro Gomez'98
Andrew Nguyen `98
Ifeoma M. F. Okwuje `98
Georgina Parra `98
Imelda Ramirez `98
Ariana Sainz `98
Evin Steed `98
Stacy Tweedy `98
Rose Cunningham
Phung Huynh
Emelia Yador `97
Ollie Beaver
Charles M. Lovett
David P. Richardson
Cesar Silva
David L. Smith
David Dethier
Nancy Roseman
Dr. Michael Payne

Full or partial federal, foundation and alumni support for summer student stipends was provided by the following sources:

Source of Funding, # Students
College funds 33
Howard Hughes Medical Institute 29
Essel Foundation 11
NSF and NIH research grants to individual faculty 7
Center For Environmental Studies 6
Research Corp 4
Keck Foundation (Astronomy) 3
Global Studies 2
Departmental Funds and Related Grants 2
Council for Undergraduate Research (CUR) 1
Petroleum Research Fund 1
Mellon Foundation 1

Summer Research Colloquia 1994

A luncheon is provided every Tuesday for participants in the summer science program. Faculty members from the science departments give talks on their research at these lunches, with opportunity for discussion afterwards. The speakers this summer were:

Anne Skinner
Department of Chemistry
"Safety In the Laboratory: For Yourself, For Your Colleagues and for the Environment"
Prof. Andres Corrada-Emmanuel
Department of Physics
"Quantum Mechanics in Multiply-Connected Spaces: Superfluids in Aerogel"
Jeffrey Goldader
Department of Astrophysics, University of Hawaii
"Infrared Galaxies Come in From the Cold"
Prof. Duane Bailey
Department of Computer Science
"Quasi-structured Computations"
Prof. Protik Majumder
Department of Physics
"Atoms That Know Left From Right: Parity Violation and the Weak Force in Ordinary Matter"
Prof. Frank Morgan
Department of Mathematics
"Geodesics and Geodesic Nets"
Prof. J. Hodge Markgraf
Department of Chemistry

Academic Year "Bag Lunch" Colloquia

During the academic year the science faculty meets weekly on Tuesdays in the Science Common Room to have lunch, to discuss matters of interest to the sciences as a whole, and to hear informal reports of faculty research and other science developments. The following talks or discussions were held during l994-95:

Prof. Wendy Raymond
Department of Biology
"Bread, Beer, and the Mitotice Cell Cycle"
Prof. Birgit Koehler
Department of Chemistry
"Polar Stratospheric Clouds, Tropospheric Aerosols, and Ozone Depletion"
Department of Computer Science
"Mosaic - WWW (World Wide Web)"
Prof. Robert Manning
Department of Mathematics
"Chaos: What Good Is It"
Prof. Charles M. Lovett
Department of Chemistry
"Remodeling the Science Quad - Part I"
Prof. Gretchen Meyer
Department of Biology
"When Does Insect Feeding Matter to Plants?"
Prof. Anjali Thapar
Department of Psychology
"Implicit Memory: The Return of Unconscious Processing to Cognitive Psychology"
Prof. Richard DeVeaux
Department of Mathematics
"Statistical Journey Through The Sciences"
Prof. Charles M. Lovett
Department of Chemistry
"Science Facilities Update"
Prof. Markes Johnson
Department of Geology
"Separating Tectonic and Eustatic Components of Sea-Level Change: Adventures in the Pliocene Gulf of California and Silurian South China"
Prof. Andrea Danyluk
Department of Computer Science
"Making Expert Systems Self-Adaptive (or) Why It's A Miracle We Get A Dial-Tone"
Prof. Eileen Donahue
Department of Psychology
"Children's Conception of Personalities"
Prof. James Voelkel
Department of Astronomy
"Scientific Communication in the 17th Century"
Prof. Charles M. Lovett
Department of Chemistry
"Update on the Science Quad Remodeling Project"
Prof. Reinhard A Wobus
Department of Geology
"T. Nelson Dale ... A Centennial Plus A Year"
Prof. Saul Kassin
Department of Psychology
"Coerced Confessions: Compliance, Internalization an Confabulation"
CEP Representatives
Williams College
"Review of the Williams College Curriculum"

Pre-First Year Summer Science Program

With its ninth summer in 1995, the Summer Science Program again finished strong in the endeavor to provide an enriching and intensive five-week immersion in science, mathematics and English for a talented group of science-oriented Williams pre-firstyear minority students. The goal of the Program is to promote and encourage continuing participation in science and science related studies by members of minorities that have historically been underrepresented in the sciences.

The Program ran for five weeks during July and August of 1995. Students took classes in chemistry (including a major laboratory component), mathematics and English (literature and expository writing). Although not replicas of Williams' academic year offerings, the Summer Science Program classes are taught at a college level, thus introducing participants to the rigors and demands of college academics.

In addition to regular classes, students participated in biology and geology in- the- field experiments. The students engaged in a variety of extracurricular activities, including the Williamstown Theater Festival, and a day trip to Boston. They also participated in many of the activities of the Williams science students who were on campus doing research in the sciences.

Since the first Summer Science Program in 1987, over 100 minority students have participated. Enthusiasm for the Program has been high. Participants have taken full advantage of the opportunity to study at Williams in the summer. Their academic year experiences have, as a result of the Program, been successful and many of the students have continued their studies in science or mathematics. A significant number of former participants have returned to campus in the summertime as summer research students in science and mathematics, have become tutors for the Summer Science Program or have secured positions elsewhere in science research institutes. From the 1987 through 1991 SSP participants, approximately 90% have been graduated from Williams College, with nearly 50% continuing on to graduate programs in science, medical schools or science related positions. Those students who have left science related activities bring to their careers a strong background in science and mathematics.

Professor Olga R. Beaver continued to direct the Program and to teach a mathematics component. Professor Charles M. Lovett taught the chemistry classes, Professor David P. Richardson conducted the laboratory sessions, Professor Cesar Silva taught the other mathematics component and Professor David L. Smith ran the English sessions. Also, Professor David Dethier conducted the geology- in- the- field laboratory and Professor Nancy Roseman presented the biology components. Dr. Michael Payne led the students in discussions of goals, data management, and approaches to college life. The excellent tutors for the Program in 1995 were Rose Cunningham `96 (SSP- `92), Phung Huynh `97 (SSP- `93) and Emelia Yador `97 (SSP- `93). Several former SSP students were on campus in the summer to do research and contributed much to the spirit of the 1994 Program: Amy Prieto `96 (SSP- `92), Christine Carter `96 (SSP- `92) and Jin Kwon `97 (SSP- `93).

The Summer Science Program has been principally funded by Williams College as part of the institution's commitment to encourage the participation of women and minorities in the sciences. From 1987 to 1990, follow-up activities during the academic year were also supported by a GTE Focus Grant for Minorities. In 1991, SSP received additional funding from a five- year biological sciences award from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This grant has contributed support for several SSP components, including the biology laboratories, travel to Boston, the support lectures of Dr. Payne. Special thanks go to the many science faculty and students of Williams College who, both during the summer as well as during the academic year, have taken time to encourage the successes of the Program and of the students.

Williams College Sigma Xi Club

The Williams College Sigma Xi club, has played an active role on the Williams campus since 1969. Sigma Xi is a national society honoring and encouraging research in science. At Williams it also sponsors a number of outreach programs designed to stimulate interest in science among grade, junior high, and high school students. Officers for 1994-95 were President, Professor Lawrence J. Kaplan of the Chemistry Department and Secretary-Treasurer, Professor Laurie Heatherington of the Department of Psychology.

As a result of a change in the Constitution and By-Laws of the national organization, the William College Sigma Xi `Club' officially became the Williams College Sigma Xi `Chapter' on July 1, 1995. With this change, the Chapter is entitled to all of the benefits of chapter status including the right to elect scientists to full (rather than associate) membership.

During the 1994-95 academic year, our club sponsored two speakers in its annual Sigma Xi Research Lecture series. In October, Professor David Witte, Department of Mathematics presented lectures titled, "Symmetries: Linear and Nonlinear" and "The Structure of Linear Groups" In April, Professor Williams Fox, Department of Geology, presented a two part lecture titled, "Remote Sensing: A Multispectral View From Space." Both sets of lectures were interesting and informative and receptions were held to honor each speaker.

Once again our Sigma Xi Club co-sponsored a Math/Science Event to honor the seventh and eighth grade winners of regional science fairs. On May 12, approximately 100 students came to the campus for a morning of activities and presentations. These students represented the following schools: Abbott Memorial School, Adams Memorial School, Berkshire Country Day School, Conte Middle School, Frontier Regional School, Mt. Greylock Regional School, Northfield Elementary School, Notre Dame Middle School, Reid Middle School, St. Stanislaus School, and Williamstown Elementary School.

Professor Enrique Peacock-Lopez of the Department of Chemistry began the Math/Science Event program with a very popular presentation, "The Sights and Sounds of Chemistry." Afterwards the students were divided into nine groups and attended the presentations and activities. These included: Professor Lee Park, Department of Chemistry, "Acids and Bases;" Ms. Carolyn Kaplan, "The Chemistry of Slime, Gloop, Ooblech, and Glurch;" Professor Larry Kaplan, Department of Chemistry, "Forensic Science;" Professor Bud Wobus, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, "Seeing Through Stone;" Professor Andy Koch, Department of Chemistry, "Hands On Chemistry;" and Professor William Wootters, Department of Physics, "Good Vibrations."

In addition, Ms. Deborah Maraziti, Department of Astronomy, coordinated assistants in demonstrating the telescope facility with "Shooting the Stars." Electron Microscopy Technician Ms. Nancy Piatczyc demonstrated the electron microscope, and Center for Environmental Studies Technical Assistant Ms. Sandy Brown performed "Water Chemistry Experiments." After the presentations, the participants enjoyed a pizza lunch courtesy of Specialty Minerals, Inc. In addition to the Sigma Xi Club, the entire program was cosponsored by the Consortium for the Improvement of Math and Science Teaching, director Gus Leibowitz of North Adams State College, Specialty Minerals, Inc., coordinated by Mr. Butch Parrott, and GE Plastics, Inc., coordinated by Diana Nichols.

The Sigma Xi Club also sponsored a High School Science Award for a student at Mount Greylock Regional High School in recognition of a high level of motivation and accomplishment in science courses. This year, the award was made to Jennifer Stevens.

One of the primary purposes of Sigma Xi is to recognize graduating science students who have demonstrated exceptional ability and promise for further contributions to the advancement of scientific research. These students are elected as associate Members of Sigma Xi and are inducted into the Society at a ceremony during Class Day on Commencement Weekend. A detailed description of their research projects is presented later in this Report.

Associate Sigma Xi Members from the Class of 1995

Andre Gerard (Gretchen Meyer)
Gregory J. Crowther (Daniel Lynch)
Alison K. Criss (Daniel Lynch)
Jeremy W. Fox (David Smith)
Matthew T. Murrell (Heather Williams)
Donny Wong (Charles Lovett)
Jennifer K. Hood (Charles Lovett)
Catherine E. Shawl (Jay Thoman)
Daniel E. Patterson (J. Hodge Markgraf)
K. Jebrell Glover (Lee Park)
Heather A. Cox (Jay Thoman)
Max H. Nanao (Robert Evans)
Jean Marie Pesola (Robert Evans)
Computer Science
Stina S. Bridgeman (Williams Lenhart)
Steven W. McLaughry (Duane Bailey)
Maximino E. Simian (Markes Johnson)
Sarah T. Mills (William Fox)
Laura K. Libbey (Markes Johnson)
Michele N. Koppes (David Dethier)
Demian M. Saffer (Paul Karabinos)
Christopher P. French (Thomas Garrity)
Edward W. Welsh (Colin Adams)
Jeffrey C. Bevelander (Colin Adams)
Michael J. Pelsmajer (William Lenhart)
Colin F. McCormick (Williams Wootters)
Todd Stievater (Jefferson Strait)
Laura B. Brown (L. Heatherington)
Paul A. Boxer (L. Heatherington)
Heather E. Weston (L. Heatherington)
Meghan A. Dunn (Saul Kassin)
Stacy R. Whitcomb (B. Zimmerberg-Glick)



Modified by: bbabcock
Modification Date: December 13, 1995