The Astronomy faculty included Karen B. Kwitter, Professor of Astronomy; James R. Voelkel (`84), Visiting Assistant Professor of Astronomy and History of Science; and Deborah L. Maraziti, Instructor in Astronomy and Observatory Supervisor. Field Memorial Professor of Astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff was on leave in residence, supported by a grant from the Getty Foundation.

Pasachoff continued his studies of the solar corona at eclipses. In collaboration with Bryce Babcock, Staff Physicist, and Kevin Reardon `92, he carried out observations of the corona at the total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994 from a site in Putre, Chile, at an altitude of 3500 m. Students participating in the expedition were Robert Galloway `96, Bonnie Schulkin `96, and Princeton student Eric Kutner `95. Also participating were Woody Printz of Richmond, Massachusetts; Lee Hawkins of Wellesley College, Keck Consortium technician; Jonathan Kern of New Orleans; and Robert Eather of Boston.

The main experiment was to study the heating of the solar corona through a search for oscillations of small coronal loops in the 0.5 - 2 Hz range. The observations were made on-band in a narrow spectral band including the coronal green line at 530.3 nm and off-band in nearby continuum. Instrumentation included two Princeton Instruments CCD detectors and Macintosh Quadra controllers. A second experiment used the Photometrics CCD supplied as part of the Keck Consortium to look through special filters chosen to be either at wavelengths especially sensitive to coronal temperature or at nearby non-sensitive nodes. Auxiliary experiments included Kern's radial-filter imaging, now being scanned at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh; Eather's IMAX movie, auxiliary photographs and videos, etc. Summer students Sebastian Diaz `98 and Keck exchange student Rana Nichols-Kiley (Vassar `97) are participating in the data reduction. Pasachoff delivered a joint paper by Pasachoff, Babcock, and Reardon entitled "Coronal Heating Studies at the 1994 Total Solar Eclipse" at an eclipse symposium of the Bolivian Academy of Sciences at Lake Titicaca in May 1995. He also was Scientific Advisor to the conference, in his role as Chair of the Working Group on Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union. He further delivered a summary paper "Observations at the International Astronomical Union Site at Putre, Chile". The work at the 1994 eclipse has been sponsored by grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society.

Pasachoff and Babcock are preparing a version of their oscillation experiment for the 24 October 1995 total solar eclipse in India.

Pasachoff worked during the year on a study of "Comets and Meteors in 18th and 19th Century British Art and Science," jointly with Prof. R.J.M. Olson of Wheaton College on a collaborative grant from the Getty Foundation. They are writing a book on the topic for Cambridge University Press. Their work took them to archives at the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh, the Royal Society in London, the Royal Astronomical Society in London, the Old Greenwich Observatory and the National Maritime Museum in London, and to museums, print rooms, and other archives at the British Museum, the Tate Gallery, the Fitzwilliam Museum, and elsewhere. Pasachoff and Olson are describing the tremendous interest among scientists and the public following the work of Halley and Newton on the comets of 1680 and 1682 and the discovery of Uranus by Herschel in 1781. Their study continues through the 1910 apparition of Halley's comet.

Pasachoff continued to work with D. Lubowich of the American Institute of Physics and Hofstra University on studies of interstellar and stellar deuterium and its relation to cosmology. The abundance of the light elements has proved to be an equal supporting column of current cosmology, along with the expansion of the Universe observed as redshifts and the existence and distribution of the cosmic background radiation. Along with Robert Galloway `96, Robert L. Kurucz of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Vern Smith of the University of Texas, they delivered a paper entitled "Upper Limit for the Deuterium Abundance in the Halo Star HD 140283," at the American Astronomical Society in Tucson, Arizona, in January 1995, discussing their observations at the Kitt Peak National Observatory of the spectrum of a star in the halo of our galaxy. They discussed limits of the deuterium-alpha spectral line in the star, and how they indicate that the reported possible discovery of extremely redshifted deuterium in a distant quasar probably resulted from confusion with spectral lines of ordinary hydrogen. The results of deuterium studies have bearing on our understanding of whether the Universe will expand forever or will eventually contract, and leads to an assessment of the percentage of dark matter in the Universe.

Kwitter's main projects continue to include haloes and chemical abundances of planetary nebulae, interactions of old planetary nebulae with the interstellar medium, and a search for lithium in the neutral envelopes of planetary nebulae.

Kwitter's studies of old planetary nebulae are in collaboration with Richard Tweedy (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), making use of the large-format (2048x2048 pixel) CCD detector at the Burrell Schmidt telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Tweedy and Kwitter have published two papers on their results, which include discovery of planetary nebulae around two hot white dwarf stars. In November 1994, Deborah Maraziti observed with Tweedy. In May 1995, Kwitter and Tweedy were joined on an observing run by Christina Reynolds `97.

Kwitter is also continuing to work on carbon abundances in planetary nebulae. The only emission line appearing in the visible part of the spectrum is a transition in singly ionized carbon, C+, which is intrinsically very weak compared to the normally observed emission lines in these objects; there are stronger lines available in the ultraviolet. Along with Richard Henry (University of Oklahoma) and his graduate student Richard Buell, Kwitter is working under the auspices of a NASA Astrophysics Data Program grant to use newly recalibrated archived data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite to study the production of carbon in intermediate-mass stars. They presented two papers at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Tucson, Arizona, January 1995: "A New Look at Carbon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae" and "Helium in Planetary Nebulae and Asymptotic Giant Branch Models." Summer 1995 Keck exchange student Dan Pierkowski (Colgate `96) and Tim McConnochie `98 participated in analyzing the more than 300 spectra required for this project.

Kwitter is continuing a collaboration with Don Lubowich (American Institute of Physics/Hofstra University) to search for lithium in planetary nebulae. Lithium enrichment has been documented in main-sequence stars, giant stars, and pre-planetary nebula stars; this investigation proposes to continue the search farther along the evolutionary path to planetary nebula envelopes. Kwitter and Lubowich have applied for time on the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope to obtain high-dispersion spectra of suitably-chosen planetary nebulae in which to search for evidence of lithium.

Kwitter was a member of the Scientific Organizing Committee for a conference on Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae, at the University of Haifa at Oranim, Israel, held 8-11 August 1994. She was also an invited participant at the Fifth Tex-Mex Meeting in Astrophysics, on the subject of Gaseous Nebulae and Star Formation, sponsored by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, the University of Texas, and Rice University, held 3-5 April 1995, in Morelos, Mexico. She delivered a paper entitled "A New Look at Carbon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae -- Results for Four Nebulae."

James Voelkel spent the first few weeks of his time at Williams finishing his Ph.D. dissertation in history of science for Indiana University. His dissertation, "The Development and Reception of Kepler's Physical Astronomy, 1593-1609," was subsequently awarded the Esther L. Kinsley Ph.D. Dissertation Award for 1994, the highest honor for graduate research Indiana University offers.

Voelkel attended the History of Science Society meeting in New Orleans in the fall. He also gave several talks this spring. He gave a talk at Bennington College entitled "Johannes Kepler as Publisher and Scientist," and the inaugural talk entitled "Tycho and Kepler" of the summer observing season to the Arunah Hill astronomy club. He also gave a talk to the staff of the Adler Planetarium in Chicago entitled "The State of the Astronomical Art, 1540." Book reviews by Voelkel appeared in Isis and Physics Today.

Maraziti, a graduate student at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii, is progressing in her dissertation research on galaxy clusters. Certain moderate- to high-redshift galaxy clusters appear to have an excess of galaxies with blue optical colors when compared to low redshift clusters of comparable richness (the "Butcher-Oemler Effect"). Most attribute the blue color to enhanced star-formation, but the trigger which accelerates the star-formation in these galaxies is not understood. She is observing the galaxies in two clusters at infrared wavelengths to search for evidence that galaxy-galaxy interactions trigger the star-formation and to investigate whether their star-forming properties are similar to those of nearby star-burst galaxies. This work is under the direction of Robert Joseph and Patrick Henry at the University of Hawaii. All infrared data for this project must be collected at the high and dry location of the UH 2.2 meter telescope atop Mauna Kea on the Big Island in Hawaii. Maraziti was awarded three nights in September 1994 to observe one cluster and three nights in March to observe the other. She also obtained images of the cluster Abell 370 in October 1994 with NASA's IRTF telescope on Mauna Kea. She is reducing the data using the Astronomy Department workstations. In the galaxies examined so far, there is no evidence for the Butcher-Oemler effect in the infrared colors. This suggests that if star formation is responsible for the blue optical colors of the cluster galaxies, then that star formation may be different than the star formation of galaxies in less crowded environments.

Alexandria Ware, (Wellesley `96), on exchange at Williams accompanied Maraziti on an observing run in March 1995 as part of her semester-long independent study of Infrared Studies of Galaxy Clusters. She also assisted with the reduction of data from a study of a third galaxy cluster, Abell 370. In collaboration with Patrick Henry and Jeffrey Goldader (University of Hawaii), Maraziti will complete the data reduction and analysis of this cluster.

On April 22, Maraziti attended the 75th Anniversary Astronomical Debate in Washington, DC. It not only commemorated the 1920 Shapley-Curtis Debate over the nature of the "spiral nebulae," but was a debate of significant content itself. Donald Lamb and Bohdan Paczynski argued for and against (respectively) the position that gamma ray burst sources are within the boundaries of the Milky Way Galaxy.

The Hopkins Observatory launched two long-term research projects in the Spring of 1995: assembling a photometric CCD atlas of peculiar galaxies and searching for optical counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. New observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and others show that universe is filled with many more small, faint galaxies than anticipated. The origin of these galaxies is a mystery. Until recently, little attention has been paid to the tremendous potential of galaxy-galaxy collisions to clutter the universe with fragmented star clusters -- galaxies by their own rights. Maraziti is interested in exploring the outer regions of colliding galaxies to search for such self-gravitating groups of stars in the process of breaking free from their parent systems. Three students, Patrick Russell `97, Richard Leimsider `98 and Steven Ehrenberg `97 did the ground-breaking observations for this study as part of their ASTR 106 course. Summer 1995 Keck exchange student Jennifer Heldman, (Colgate `98) will continue this project.

The systematic lack of identification of gamma-ray burst counterparts at other wavelengths remains one of the great frustrations in astronomy. To address this issue, a group of investigators on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory have designed a collaborative effort called the "Rapid Burst Response Campaign." The Hopkins Observatory is now one of about 30 sites worldwide that are part of this network. The TAs and faculty are on-call to observe burst sites at a moment's notice.

Voelkel brought his unique perspective as an historian of astronomy to teaching introductory astronomy this year. In the fall, his course "Cosmology: Aristotle to Einstein and the Hubble Space Telescope" brought the history and philosophy of cosmological systems to a wide variety of students. This course, the first ever offered in the astronomy department that could satisfy a division II requirement, was also cross listed in the History of Science department. Voelkel's historical perspective was also brought to bear when appropriate in 100 level courses in teaching not only the conclusions of modern astronomy but also the logic of the discovery. This was especially the case in the inaugural section of ASTR 104, a new course offering which treats galactic astronomy and modern cosmology exclusively.

Under Maraziti's supervision, the 24" telescope and associated electronics continued to be used successfully in the astronomy curriculum. Students used the CCD detector to obtain images, then manipulated them using several image processing packages. Teaching Assistants this year were Steven Blood `96, Nathaniel Farny `96, Robert Galloway `96, Jason Lorentz `96, Corey Olsen `96, Sarah Rispin `96, Christina Reynolds `97, Henry Roe `97, Bonnie Schulkin `96, Benjamin Slocum `98, and Alexandria Ware (Wellesley `96). Kyle Downey `96 and Sebastian Diaz `98 were the system managers for the astronomy workstations.

The ASTR 106 course, a "hands-on" observational astronomy seminar, was taught by Jim Voelkel and Deborah Maraziti. In addition to the colliding galaxies project, other research was undertaken by Astronomy 106 students. An unsuccessful search for supernovae disappointed Matthew Libbey `98, Jason Mitrakos `98 and Jacinto Pico `98. Meanwhile, Alvaro Borrell `97, David Foran `97, Reggie Hall `98, Rendhel Pierre-Louis `98 and Robert Watkins `98 took a close look at the surface features and brightness of Mars during its 1995 opposition.

Fifty students opted for the Observational Astronomy Winter Study class (ASTR 016) taught by Maraziti during WSP 1995. Among other activities, they watched the Quadrantid meteor shower and submitted their results for the International Meteor Organization.

On April 8, Kwitter, Maraziti, Christina Reynolds `97, Ruth O'Gorman `97, Benjamin Slocum `98, and Kyle Downey `96 attended the Meeting of Astronomy Research Students (MARS) held at Wellesley College. MARS is sponsored by NECUSE.

In May, Maraziti, Kwitter, and Christina Reynolds `97 ran a workshop called Shooting the Stars to participate in the Sigma Xi annual award day for the Science Fair winners at local elementary schools. In June, under the auspices of the Office of Public Information, Kwitter and Maraziti ran a workshop for teachers from local schools to teach them about current astronomical topics and the basics of obtaining astronomical images via the world-wide web and other computer resources.

The family of Truman Henry Safford, second director of the Hopkins Observatory (1876-1901), has kindly given a fund for the benefit of the Observatory, centered on support of student participation in research. Principals of the family involved in the gift include Arthur Safford of West Hartford, Connecticut; his daughter, Joan Safford Wright of Princeton, New Jersey; and C. Louis Safford of Williamstown.

Pasachoff continued on the Education Advisory Committee and the News Committee of the American Astronomical Society. He was a Sigma Xi National Lecturer, and as such spoke about the "Triumph of the Hubble Space Telescope" at Northwestern University, Syracuse University, Oakland University, Tennessee Technical University, University of Southern Mississippi, and Eckerd College. He was elected American Association of Physics Teachers/American Physical Society Member at Large of the Forum on Education of the American Physical Society, and attended the Executive Committee meeting in Washington in May.

Pasachoff continued to serve on the advisory boards of the educational projects of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and the American Astronomical Society. He was on the advisory board of Odyssey, a children's magazine (Cobblestone Publishing) and on the Physical Science Board of World Book Encyclopedia.

Several new books and new editions of older texts by Pasachoff were published this past year: Calculus and Multiple-Variable Calculus (L. Holder, J. De Franza and Pasachoff) with Brookes-Cole; Physics for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed.), and Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Extended with Modern Physics (R. Wolfson and Pasachoff) with Harper Collins, and The Farthest Things in the Universe (Pasachoff, H. Spinrad, P.S. Osmer, and E. Cheng) with Cambridge University Press.

Saunders College Publishing also brought out the 4th edition of Pasachoff's textbook, Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe., and Harper Collins published the 2nd edition of Physics for Scientists and Engineers, (Wolfson, R., and Pasachoff).

The Milham Planetarium was operated by Jason Lorentz `96, Amy McDougal `95, and Corey Olsen `96. The fall and spring shows were entitled "Lions and Spirals and Bears, Oh My!" and concentrated on constellation myths of the appropriate seasons. The summer 1995 show was entitled "Now You See It, Now You Don't: Celestial Mysteries Unveiled." Summer shows were principally given by Tim McConnochie `98.

Williams had a strong showing at the 5th annual Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium student conference, held at Wesleyan University in October 1994, at which students reported on their research activities during the previous summer. During the summer of 1995, the following Keck exchange students will be in residence at Williams: Jennifer Heldman (Colgate `96), working with Deborah Maraziti; Rana Nichols-Kiley (Vassar `96), working with Jay Pasachoff; and Daniel Pierkowski (Colgate `96), working with Karen Kwitter.

Student Papers: 5th Annual Keck Student Conference

Kyle Downey `96
Lee Hawkins (Wellesley College), advisor
"Automated Data Reduction and Apsidal Binary Motion"
Henry Roe `97
Eileen Friel (Maria Mitchell Observatory), advisor
"A Preliminary Color-Magnitude Diagram for the Old Open Cluster NGC 6369"
Robert Galloway `96 and Eric Spaulding (Colgate) `96
Jay Pasachoff, advisor
"Determining the Galactic Deuterium Abundance"


[Colloquia are held jointly with Physics. See Physics section for additional listings.]
Prof. Richard Henry
University of Oklahoma
"Chemical Abundance Gradients in the Spiral Disks of Galaxies" - Class of 1960 Scholars Program
Somak Raychaudhury
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
"Our Motion in the Universe, or How Gravity Matters"
Kyle Downey, Teon Edwards, Corey Olsen & Alex Ware
Students - Williams College
"An Astrophysical Summer"
John Salzer
Wesleyan University
"Smurfs in Space: A Multi-Wavelength Study of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies"
Edwin F. Ladd `86
University of Massachusetts
"Peering Into the Stellar Cradle: Successes and Shortcomings of Our Current Picture of Star Formation" - Class of 1960 Scholars Program


Interest in biology continues strong; for this year and the coming academic year, we have 130 junior and senior majors. Although we are gratified by the success of our program, our growth has created difficult logistical problems in staffing courses and providing adequate research and teaching facilities for students and faculty. We are looking forward to the time that our space problems will be addressed with the major science facility renovations that are now in the planning stages. The renovation last summer of our main lecture hall, TBL 111, to provide up-to-date video and computer projection facilities, has provided us with an excellent lecture space. Part of this renovation was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

In our continuing effort to modify and expand our curriculum, we will be introducing next year a new course in virology (BIOL 314) taught by Nancy Roseman and a new project laboratory course (BIOL 104) taught by Liz Adler, for beginning students with a special interest in biology. In addition, we have modified the 400 level courses so that all of them are literature based, and we have changed the major requirements so that every biology major takes one of these courses. During the past several years, we have added a number of new courses of particular interest to majors, including Immunology (BIOL 313), Biochemical Regulatory Mechanisms (BIOL 312) and Evolution (BIOL 305). Three 400 level courses are scheduled for next year: BIOL 402T (Current Issues in Ecology), taught by Professor Meyer; BIOL 411 (Plasticity in the Nervous System), taught by Professor Adler; and BIOL 412 (Biochemical Regulatory Mechanisms), sections of which will be taught by Professors DeWitt and Raymond.

The department is pleased to welcome Dr. Ted Floyd, who has been appointed a Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology for one year. He will be replacing Colin Orians, who has accepted a position at Tufts University. Dr. Floyd received his undergraduate degree from Princeton University and is currently completing his Ph.D. in Ecology at Pennsylvania State. Dr. Floyd's research focuses on the ecological and evolutionary determinants of animal community structure. Dr. Floyd's teaching responsibilities will include evolution, conservation biology, and advanced ecology.

After 6 years in the Dean's Office, Joan Edwards will be taking a sabbatical leave next year. David Smith, who will also be on leave next year, and Joan plan to spend time learning molecular techniques to apply to their research. They will spend the fall semester in New Zealand and then return to Williams in the spring. They will both be returning to the department following their leave.

After three years as Visiting Assistant Professor, Colin Orians has accepted a position as Assistant Professor at Tufts University for the coming year. Although his departure will certainly leave a void in the department, we wish him well.

This past year, Professor Daniel Lynch taught the introductory biology class in the fall and biochemistry during the spring semester. Prof. Lynch advised two honors students this past year, Alison Criss and Greg Crowther. During the summer of 1994 Prof. Lynch supervised two other students in his lab, Vy Bui and Lauren Araiza. He also hosted four high school students in his lab for one week as part of the outreach program funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Research Institute.

Prof. Lynch also published a paper on his research, co-authored by Alexi Phinney `93, and served as a reviewer for several journals in the fields of plant biology and biochemistry and for various granting agencies, including the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He was an invited speaker at the Eleventh International Meeting on Plant Lipids held in Paris, France.

Professor Gretchen Meyer taught Ecology (BIOL 203) in the fall semester and team-taught Introduction to Environmental Science (ENVI 102) with Professors Jay Thoman and David DeSimone in the spring. She also taught a senior tutorial (BIOL. 402, Current Issues in Ecology and Evolution) which focused on discussions of papers from the primary literature. During this past year Professor Meyer supervised several students in her lab. Victor Lopes conducted an independent project on the effects of seed size on germination success and seedling growth in Brassica nigra. She also supervised an honors thesis by Andre Gerard which involved how abiotic factors shape insect communities in small streams. Brian Spitzer `96 began an honors project with Prof. Meyer this spring. He plans to examine how differences in the quality of flower nectars influence fitness of pollinating insects.

Last August, Prof. Meyer presented a poster at the national meeting of the Ecological Society of America in Knoxville, Tennessee. In March she presented a seminar at Bennington College and gave a seminar as part of the Bronfman Lunch Series at Williams College. She was awarded the LaMont C. Cole Award from the Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University. This award is given to the author of the most outstanding paper written by a graduate student or recent graduate of the Section of Ecology and Systematics. Prof. Meyer also served as a reviewer for the journal Ecology.

In her first year at Williams, Professor Wendy Raymond taught BIOL 202 (Genetics) in the fall semester and BIMO 406 (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) in the spring. Five of the eight students in this course will enter Ph.D. programs in the fall of 1995, two of them with NSF Predoctoral Fellowships. Prof. Raymond supervised two honors students in her lab this past year. Tahira Palmer, the recipient of a Hughes summer fellowship, presented the results of her thesis project at the National Conference of Undergraduate Research at Union College in April, 1995. Tahira's project employed transposable elements to map the functional limits of a recently discovered mitotic regulatory gene EXM2. Thad Schilling, also a recipient of a Hughes summer fellowship, completed his honors thesis research involving the identification of several new genes that may play important roles in the mechanics or regulation of mitosis in yeast. Prof. Raymond also supervised two students, Kevin Lee `96 and Sheyda Namazie `96, in her lab during Winter Study this past year.

In August 1994 Prof. Raymond presented a talk at the national Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology Meeting in Seattle, Washington. She also served as a reviewer for the journal Genetics.

Professor Nancy Roseman taught BIOL 313 (Immunology) in the fall and took an assistant professor leave in the spring. During the past year she supervised three honors students in her laboratory, Miko Enomoto, Adrian Rossi, and Erica Mayer. Miko's project involved the assessment of the level of enzyme activity which occurred during a 12 hour viral replication cycle. Adrian worked on generating mutants of the dUTPase and overexpressed the protein in E. coli in order to begin structure/function studies. Erica's project determined that azido nucleotide analogs could be used to identify the active site of the dUTPase enzyme by demonstrating that the analog was a competitive inhibitor of dUTP. Prof. Roseman supervised four high school students last summer for one week as part of the outreach program funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Research Institute.

Professor Venolia taught a senior seminar on The Molecular Biology of Disease in the fall, with a laboratory section on Genetics, and the Developmental Biology course and lab in the spring. She supervised honors research by Caroline Kim, which will soon yield the publication of the predicted protein sequence for the unc-45 gene of the nematode, C. elegans. This will be the first reported sequence of a protein that is important in muscle thick-filament assembly.

Professor Heather Williams was on maternity leave during the fall semester, taught a winter study course entitled "Birds" and spent the spring semester working on an ongoing research project supported by the MacArthur Foundation, looking into the processes involved in adult brain plasticity after the period of flexibility that characterizes development is over. She supervised Matt Murrell's honors work on how the vocalizations that are used in communication are represented within the brain. Prof. Williams lectured on her research at The Rockefeller University, and served as a reviewer for several scientific publications.

Prof. Steven Zottoli spent the year on sabbatical leave continuing his research on nerve regeneration. He also served as administrator of the Howard Hughes grant.

1960 Distinguished Visitors 1994-95

Dr. Ruth Lehman	Howard		Hughes Medical Institute
Dr. Shirley Tilghman		Princeton University
Dr. P. Dee Boersma		University of Washington
Dr. Ian Baldwin			University of Buffalo

Class of 1960 Scholars in Biology

Seniors				     Juniors			
Mark de Kanter		Michael Brush		Matthew Kohn
Susanne Doblecki	Lauren Burwell		Rebecca Marin
Jeremy Fox		Jason Carey		Magdalene Moran
Bridget Kelly		Nathaniel Gerhart	Tania Shaw
Erica Mayer		Michelle Gonzales	
Heather McAuley		Bryan Greenhouse
Thad Schilling		Cynthia Huang
D. Chris Winters	Hilary Kessler


Dr. Ian Baldwin
University of Buffalo
1960 Scholar
"Is There Memory in the Induced Defenses of Plants?"
Dr. P. Dee Boersma
University of Washington
1960 Scholar
"Penguins of Patagonia: Formal Rules for Life in a Variable Enrivonment"
Dr. Leo Fleishman
Union College
"Sensory Influences on the Evolution of Visual Displays in Anoline Lizards"
Dr. Janet Kurjan
University of Vermont
"Genetics of Adhesion Proteins in Yeast Mating"
Dr. Richard Kobe
University of Connecticut
"Linking Scales: Juvenile Tree Mortality in Individuals, Populations, and Communities"
Dr. Ruth Lehman
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
1960 Scholar
"Establishment of Head-to-Tail Polarity in the Drosophila Embryo"
Dr. Alfred Merrill
Emory University School of Medicine
BIMO 1960 Scholar
"Sphingolipids in Cell Regulation and Disease"
Dr. Matthew Parker
SUNY Binghamton
"Co-evolution in Plant-Bacterial Mutualisms"
Dr. Shirley Tilghman
Princeton University
1960 Scholar
"Genomic Imprinting: A Novel Mechanism for Growth Regulation in Mammals"


Christa Alexander
- Unknown
Mandy Allison
- Taking a year off
Daren Bishop
- Working in Maine for a year, then applying to medical school.
Sarah Brill
- Unknown
Richard Campin
- Medical School (Dartmouth or Kansas)
Alison Criss
- Graduate School - Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School.
Gregory Crowther
- Graduate School - University of Washington (Seattle)
Lenise Cummings
- Unknown
John Davidman
- Taking a year off, then applying to medical school.
Mark de Kander
- Teaching - Eaglebrook School, Deerfield, MI
Anne Del Borgo
- Veterinary School - Cornell University
Diana Del Valle
- Medical School - New York Medical School (deferring for a year).
Amit Dhamoon
- Unknown
Susanne Doblecki
- Unknown
T. Miko Enomoto
- Taking a year off, then applying to medical school.
John Feerick
- Taking a year off, then applying to medical school
Jeremy Fox
- Graduate School - Rutgers University, Ph.D. in Ecology
Andre Gerard
- Working as a field assistant with the Nevada Biodiversity Initiative, Bridgeport, CA. Plans to apply to medical school.
Jordana Gilman
- Medical School - George Washington Medical School.
Laura Good
- Medical School - Pittsburgh Medical School.
Brian Gugliotta
- Unknown
Kristina Hansen
- Working, Health Care consulting - Lewin UHI, Fairfax, VA
Lucas Henderson
- Applying to medical school
Yuri Hur
- Unknown
Wendy Kasserman
- Graduate School - Hannemann University, Physical Therapy Program.
Bridget Kelly
- Delaying medical school application for a year.
Jennifer Kerns
- Medical School
Caroline Kim
- Medical School - University of Pittsburgh
Tracy Lee
- Medical School - SUNY, Brooklyn
Kristin Lindstrom
- Unknown
Victor Lopes
- Unknown
Erica Mayer
- Teaching for a year in Japan, then attending Harvard Medical school.
Heather McAuley
- Working - Goldman, Sachs & Co., Investment Banking
Charles Morrison
- Applying to medical school
Matthew Murrell
- Working - Laboratory of Dr. Frank Sharp in the Neurology Department at UCSF.
Max Nanao
- Graduate School - UCSD
Bridie Newman
- Unknown
Tahira Palmer
- Unknown
Stephanie Parsons
- Working - Research Tech at Harvard Med/Brigham & Women's Hospital.
Marion Pepper
- Unknown
Christina Pligavko
- Unknown
Pamela Proffit
- Medical School - Temple University
Peter Richards
- Working as a paramedic in Burlington, VT. Applying to medical school.
Heidi Rose
- Working, hopefully in health management
Mario Rossi
- Applying to medical school
Allison Rowland
- Medical School - Dartmouth Medical School
Thad Schilling
- Medical School - Case Western University
Dana Secrist
- Unknown
Sonia Shah
- Medical School - SUNY Buffalo
Amy Storer
- Unknown
Margaret Swaine
- Applying to medical school
Alice Tsao
- Unknown
Donald C. Winters
- Business School - Northeastern University
Marcienne Wright
- Unknown
Andrew Zwiebel
- Delaying medical school application for a year.
Stanley Cho
- Applying to medical school
Marilo Crissman
- Unknown
Melissa Dalzell
- SUNY, Stony Brook Medical School
Thomas Day
- Applying to medical school
Brenda Dunlap
- Unknown
Deborah Feiner
- Working for 2 years at NYU Medical Center on Aids Research
Jonathan Fisher
- Mt. Sinai or New York Medical School
Hesammodin Gharavi
- Louisiana State Medical School
Doron Greenbaum
- Unknown
Shaw Henderson
- Working at UVM, then applying to medical school
John Hering
- University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Medical School
Rhadjena Hilliard
- Applying to medical school
Sayre Hodgson
- Unknown
Paul Hohenlohe
- Working for the Wilderness Society in Alaska
Elizabeth Linen
- Teaching marine science as an Assistant Scientist with SEA in Woods Hole, MA.
Mei-Lin Lu
- Working at NYU Medical Center (Bellevue Hospital)
Sangeeta Mahajan
- Case Western or Ohio State Medical School
Scott Martin
- Working at Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, NYC
Neil Mehta
- Rush Medical College
Katharine Nash
- University of Michigan Graduate School in Biology
Elise Newhall
- Teaching at New Canaan Country School, then Med. School
Helen Norwood
- Unknown
Brian Rho
- Applying to graduate programs
Rebecca Schaffner
- Working Center for Coastal Studies, Provincetown, MA
Deborah Schein
- Unknown
David Scholle
- University of Chicago Graduate School
Cynthia Sharpe
- University of Chicago Graduate School
Jeffrey Sicat
- Applying to medical school
Bradley Smith
- Unknown
Rajnish Tandon
- Applying to medical school
Dana Tomasino
- Studying Alternative Medicine in Italy then Grad. School
Lisanne Velez
- Unknown
Erik White
- Dartmouth Medical School
Sara White
- North Carolina State University Veterinary School


The Department had a very busy year, highlighted by the promotion of Professors Enrique Peacock-López and John W. Thoman, Jr. to the rank of Associate Professor and Professor Charles M. Lovett, Jr. to the rank of full Professor effective 1 July 1995. Associate Professor Thoman will replace Professor Chang as Department Chair in January 1996. Two of our graduating seniors, Alison K. Criss and Jennifer K. Hood, were awarded National Science Foundation Fellowships for graduate study.

Part-time lecturer Dr. Manuel Finkelstein announced his retirement from the College in May. Dr. Finkelstein taught organic chemistry laboratory sections for 38 years and played an important role in our educational program. We thank him for his service and contribution and wish him all the best .

This year we continued to participate in the lectureship program under the sponsorship of the Class of 1960 Scholars Program. Four distinguished scientists were invited to campus to meet with our students and present a seminar. Professor John K. Snyder of Boston University, Professor Sylvia T. Ceyer of M.I.T., Professor Margaret A. Tolbert of CIRES at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Professor Bruce Ganem of Cornell University were the 1960 Scholar Speakers this year. Thirteen students were selected by the faculty to be Class of 1960 Scholars during 1995 and to participate in the seminar program which includes: a preliminary meeting of the Scholars with a Chemistry Department faculty member to discuss some of the papers of the seminar speaker; attendance at the seminar/discussion; and an opportunity for further discussion with the seminar speaker at an informal reception or dinner. The students selected for this year are:

Class of 1960 Scholars in Chemistry

Chuchu Chizea-Dennar	Phoebe Glazer	Chia-Yu Hwu
Michael Miller		Shing Chi Poon	Amy Prieto
Dan Radov		Gates Roe	Mark Rudolph
Gregg Theiss		Rebecca Thomas	Robin Truelove
Erin Whitney

During the final week of classes, a number of awards were presented to chemistry students for outstanding scholarship. Professors Chang and Thoman presented the CRC Award to Erin M. Thelander `98 as the outstanding student in the general chemistry course and Professors Evans and Koehler presented the CRC Award to Robert Chang `98 as the outstanding student in the advanced general chemistry course. Professors Markgraf and Richardson awarded the Harold H. Warren Prize to Susan E. Gurgel `97 in recognition of her being the outstanding student in introductory organic chemistry. At the annual senior Honors Colloquium, Professor Chang announced the American Chemical Society Polymer Division Award for excellence in introductory organic chemistry for Frederick C. Winston `97, the American Chemical Society Analytical Division Award for Matthew G. Jarvis `96, the American Chemical Society Connecticut Valley Section Award for sustained scholastic excellence for Heather A. Cox `95, and the American Institute of Chemists Student Award for outstanding scholastic achievement for Daniel E. Patterson `95.

At Class Day activities before graduation, the John Sabin Adriance Prize was awarded to Alison K. Criss as the senior chemistry major who maintained the highest rank in all courses offered by the Department. Also during Class Day, Elizabeth A. Gray was the recipient of the Leverett Mears Prize in recognition of outstanding scholastic achievement, admission to graduate study in the medical sciences or to medical school, and designation by the faculty of the Department as showing outstanding promise. The James F. Skinner Prize for achieving a distinguished record in chemistry and showing promise for teaching and scholarship was presented to Jennifer K. Hood.

During the summer of 1995, a number of Williams College chemistry majors were awarded research assistantships to conduct research in the laboratories of departmental faculty. Some of these students were supported by funds from the College, some from NIH, NSF, the Research Corporation, and the Petroleum Research grants administered by the American Chemical Society.

Professor Raymond Chang continues to serve on the Graduate Records Examination Committee (GRE) in chemistry. He has been appointed to the editorial board of a new journal (Chemical Educator) devoted to chemical education issues and serves as a member of the advisory committee for the NSF sponsored project: "Sweeping Change in Manageable Units: A Modular Approach to Chemistry Curriculum Reform" at the University of California at Berkeley. In January Professor Chang gave an invited talk at the Milton Academy. Working with Honors student Rajiv Doshi they explored new techniques for generating neutral free radicals and studied the mechanism of Grignard reagent formation.

During his leave year Assistant Professor Dalton continued his research directed toward the synthesis of new metal-carbonyl complexes and Lewis acid analogs of metalloenzymes. Funding for these projects was provided by Research Corporation. Summer researcher Jennifer Hood `95 focused on the synthesis of new heterocyclic ligands that could mimic the active site of the metalloenzyme [[beta]]-Lactamase II. Her efforts included the development of 11B NMR techniques to characterize the target molecules. Jennifer presented the results of her work at the Organometallic Summer Undergraduate Research Group (OSURG) in August. In conjunction with her Pfizer Fellowship, Jennifer and Professor Dalton also presented their findings at Pfizer Central Research last Fall.

Professor Dalton was awarded a grant from NECUSE to host the 7th annual OSURG conference that was held at Williams. The OSURG conference was canceled in 1995 but should return next summer. Professor Dalton was also awarded a $54,000 grant from the National Science Foundation for the creation of a molecular modeling lab in the chemistry department. The funds will be used to purchase a Silicon Graphics workstation, Macintosh computers, and software for experimental work in computational chemistry.

Assistant Professor Robert Evans continued his research directed at characterizing the active site of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. His research efforts were aided this year by Jean Pesola `95, Max Nanao `95, Kirsten Williams `95 and Steven Saunders. He also served as a reviewer for the Journal of Biological Chemistry and Biochemistry . In addition to his research, Professor Evans developed and taught a new non-majors course during the fall semester AIDS: The Disease and Search for a Cure, (CHEM 115.) During the spring term Professor Evans taught the advanced section of General Chemistry and the Department's Ford Course in General Chemistry (CHEM 106/108).

Professor Lawrence Kaplan was elected to membership in the American Academy of Forensic Science while attending the 47th annual meeting of the Academy held in Seattle in February.

He presented lectures and conducted workshops on his continuing work to promote forensic science as a vehicle for science education. The lectures included: "Forensic Chemistry with a Murder at Midnight" which was presented by invitation at the Chemical Education Symposium at the 24th North Eastern Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society at the University of Vermont in June 1994; "Chemistry and Crime: An Introduction to Forensic Science" which was presented at the 13th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education at Bucknell University in August 1994; "Forensic Science - Crime in the Chemistry Curriculum." and "Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Modern Forensic Science" which were presented as the ACS speaker at Iowa State University in March 1995; and "Forensic Science - Crime in the Chemistry Curriculum" a seminar presented at the University of New Hampshire in April 1995.

During spring break, Professor Kaplan taught a workshop, Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Modern Forensic Science - Experiments for High School Science Courses, as part of the Franklin County Teacher In-Service Day at the Mohawk Regional High School for a number of science teachers from Western Massachusetts. It was sponsored by the Consortium for the Improvement of Math & Science Teaching based at North Adams State College. He presented two more informal seminars at Williams: "The Evidence Never Lies But Is It Admissible: The DNA Profiling Evidence in the O. J. Simpson Case," presented during the fall first year family weekend; and "Forensic Science: Solving Cases Old and New," presented at the alumni reunion weekend during June 1995.

In collaboration with Professor Lee Park, he developed a new Winter Study course, Science for Kids. The course, which was a variation on the course Science on the Road which he had developed a number of years ago with Professor Bud Wobus, was designed to introduce Williams students to the many aspects of developing and presenting a science workshop. The participants in the workshops were elementary school students and their parents. 4th graders and their parents were invited to campus and the workshops were conducted here rather than at the individual schools.

His work in the field of forensic science was reported in the popular media. "Secret to Longevity? Elementary for Holmes" in the Albany Times Union, and "Whodunit course catches fire" in The Boston Globe discussed the unique features of the Chemistry and Crime course. Professor Kaplan was interviewed on two broadcasts on National Public Radio, "The Law Show" (WAMC) and "Best of Our Knowledge" (WAMC.) Finally, he was profiled in Chemical & Engineering News in the article "Chemistry Curriculum Reform Focuses on Content, Technology, and Pedagogy," discussing his presentation at the 13th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education.

This year Assistant Professor Andrew Koch has been on leave. Though this leave took him no farther then his own research laboratory at Williams, he has enjoyed a fruitful year of research. Professor Koch took one Honors student, Grant Harbison `95, this year who helped work on his pyridinium substituted benzoquinone project. Together they were able to prepare and study a series of unique pyridinium benzoquinones which they are writing up for publication this summer. Grant Harbison's work has culminated in a thesis entitled "Synthesis and Isolation of 2,5-bis-4-tert-butylpyridinium-3,6-dioxy-1,4-Benzoquinone and Attempted Synthesis and Isolation of Related Compounds". Grant presented his findings at the 15th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium at Trinity College which was hosted by the Connecticut Valley Section of the American Chemistry Society. Professor Koch presented their findings at an invited seminar at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute entitled "Per-pyridinium Compounds: Preparation and Investigation of an Unusual Class of Densely Charged Compounds". He will also present these results as a poster entitled "Working Towards the Formation of Pyridinium Substituted Benzoquinones" at the 34th National Organic Symposium in Williamsburg, Virginia in June. Professor Koch was also fortunate enough to attend the 12th IUPAC Conference on Physical Organic Chemistry in Padova, Italy last summer.

While on leave, Professor Koch continued his activities for the Sigma XI Science Day by offering middle school children hands-on demonstrations of how one can draw conclusions on the atomic scale by making macroscopic observations. Professor Koch was also responsible for setting up a summer research student exchange program between the University of Leiden in the Netherlands and Williams. This summer two Williams students, Grant Harbison `95 and David Vosburg `97, will be involved in research in Leiden while two Dutch students, Martin de Kort and Simon van der Plas, will be working for Professor Koch and Professor Markgraf, respectively. In addition, Professor Koch has also continued to serve as a reviewer for the Journal of Organic Chemistry and Chemistry of Materials.

This past year, our department received a new member. Assistant Professor Birgit Koehler moved from Boulder, Colorado to Williamstown in July of 1994. Her first month started out well with the news that she had been awarded a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Start-up Grant for Undergraduate Institutions. During her first semester, Professor Koehler taught CHEM 103, the advanced section of Introductory Chemistry with a record enrollment of 40 students. In the spring, she concentrated on her specialty by teaching a new class, Atmospheric Chemistry (CHEM 316) for junior and senior chemistry majors, some of whom are also Environmental Studies concentrators.

On the research front, Professor Koehler worked with senior Honors student Anne N. Normand `95. Anne worked through an enormous data set to evaluate the evaporation kinetics of solid solutions and crystals of water and nitric acid which are representative of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Because PSCs are key initiators for polar stratospheric ozone depletion, this information will help model the stability of PSCs and hence the spatial extent of ozone loss. Anne presented her findings at the 15th annual Undergraduate Research Symposium of the Connecticut Valley Section of the American Chemical Society, and Professor Koehler will present this work with a poster at the 1995 Atmospheric Chemistry Gordon Conference in Newport, RI. Professor Koehler also presented talks on Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion at the Center for Environmental Studies' "Log Lunch" series, at the science faculty's Bronfman Lunch series, and for the Chemistry Department seminars at Hamilton College, Dartmouth College, and the College of the Holy Cross. During Winter Study, Handel Emery `98 worked in Professor Koehler's lab devising strategies for forming thin films of carbon on an inert silicon substrate. His results are useful preliminary experiments for the project Erin Whitney `96 will spearhead. She is currently helping design and will soon be building a custom apparatus for studying the interaction of atmospheric trace gases with atmospheric particulates. Erin is working in Professor Koehler's lab during the summer of 1995 with support from Hewlett-Packard Company through a Council on Undergraduate Research Academic-Industrial Research Partnership Fellowship. Erin will continue her work next year as a senior Honors thesis project.

Professor Koehler was a co-author of a recent publication entitled "Infrared Optical Constants of H2O Ice, Amorphous Nitric Acid Solutions, and Nitric Acid Hydrates" which appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research..

Charles Lovett was promoted to Professor of Chemistry, effective July 1, 1995. Professor Lovett served his second year as Director of Bronfman Science Center and Chair of the Science Executive Committee. He also served as Chair of the Building Committee for the new science facility; in this capacity he was involved in the early stages of the project, including architect selection and programming. He continued to serve as Chair of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Program. He also served on the Executive Board of the New England Consortium for Undergraduate Science Education and on the Advisory Committee for Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL), a national reform movement to strengthen undergraduate science and mathematics.

Professor Lovett continued his research on the regulation of DNA repair in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, supported by the National Science Foundation. During the past year, this work involved the efforts of several Williams students. Last summer, Dana Tomasino `94, Donny Wong `95, Jon Hargreaves `95, and Rebecca Marin `96 worked on various aspects of this research as full-time research assistants. During the academic year, he directed Jen Hood, Jon Hargreaves, and Donny Wong as Senior Honors students. Professor Lovett published one paper, co-authored with former Honors student James Woodruff, in the Journal of Bacteriology:, "Analysis of the SOS Inducing Signal in Bacillus subtilis using Esherichia coli LexA as a Probe." Professor Lovett continued to serve as an ad hoc reviewer of research grant proposals for the Molecular Genetics Division of the National Science Foundation.

Last summer , Professor Lovett taught the Chemistry lectures component of the Williams College Summer Science Program for Minority Students. During the summer he also worked with Anne Normand `95, on the preparation of a laboratory manual for the laboratory program in the introductory biochemistry course, Structure and Function of Biological Molecules, which he taught during the fall semester. He and Professor David Richardson taught two courses in the spring semester, Toxicology and Cancer and Enzyme Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms. During the spring semester he also taught the new interdisciplinary course, Introduction to Global Studies, which he developed and taught with Professors Raymond Baker (Political Science) and Mark Taylor (Religion).

Professor Hodge Markgraf's research group included Nick Byrne `95, Dan Patterson `95, Chia-Yu Hwu `96 (Honors theses), Poorab Sangani `97 (WSP project), and Dr. Manny Finkelstein (research associate). Byrne and Hwu started a new area of research into azahelicenes, Patterson developed a new route to heteronaphthacenes via high temperature Diels-Alder reactions, Sangani and Finkelstein discovered a new method of oxidizing tertiary amines under phase transfer catalysis conditions, and Finkelstein completed a synthesis of carbocyclic analogs of canthin-6-one by intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions. This summer Hwu and Sangani continued their respective investigations and exchange student Simon van der Plas (University of Leiden) joined the group effort on azahelicenes. Also this summer Markgraf, Finkelstein, and John Cort `91 presented with others a paper, "Protodediazoniation of an Aryldiazonium Ion," in the first Electronic Conference on Trends in Organic Chemistry (ECTOC) which was a two-week international conference via the World Wide Web.

In March 1995 Professor Markgraf attended the national meeting of Sigma Xi, the scientific research society, as a representative of the Williams College Chapter. The Williams College Sigma Xi officers are Professors Lawrence J. Kaplan (Chemistry) and Laurie Heatherington (Psychology). During the past year Markgraf also served as a reviewer for the Journal of Organic Chemistry.

Assistant Professor Lee Park taught CHEM 305, Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry, during the fall term and CHEM 304, Instrumental Methods of Analysis in the spring. She also team-taught a Winter Study course, Science for Kids, with Professor Larry Kaplan. She has been working with Assistant Professor Andy Koch on developing a new upper level course on Materials Chemistry which will be offered for the first time during the fall of 1995. She also served as the departmental graduate school advisor, as well as the faculty advisor to the Chemistry Student Advisory Committee (CSAC). In October she presented a workshop on Liquid Crystalline Materials to local high school and middle school teachers under the auspices of the Consortium for the Improvement of Math and Science Teaching. She attended the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington, D.C. in August, an NSF sponsored workshop on Materials Chemistry in Pittsburgh in May, as well as the 4th International Symposium on Metallomesogens in Cetraro, Italy in June.

Professor Park continued her work on the synthesis of novel metal-containing liquid crystalline materials. Jebrell Glover (`95) and Susan Gillmor (`96) worked with her on the preparation of these new materials over the summer. Jebrell's summer work was supported by a grant provided by the Council on Undergraduate Research, and he presented his results at the 7th annual OSURG conference, held at Williams College in July. Jebrell continued his work as an Honors student this year, and presented his results at the 15th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium hosted by the Connecticut Valley Section of the American Chemical Society at Trinity College. Jebrell was joined in Professor Park's lab this year by two other Honors students, Mark Cordes (`95) and Jonathan Nitschke (`95). Their work will be continued this summer by Amy Prieto (`96) and Thomas Reid (`97).

Assistant Professor Enrique Peacock-López continued his research in complex dynamical chemical and biochemical mechanisms. During the past year, Elizabeth Juang `95 has been working on two projects. During the summer of `94, Elizabeth worked on an extended model of the alternative pathway of the complement. She postulated a model that includes self-recognition. During the 94-95 academic year, Ms. Juang worked on the steady state approximation in cascade mechanisms. In particular, she considered our previous minimal model and simplified the Michaelis-Menten step using the steady state approximation. She analyzed both the full and the contracted version of the minimal model.

Also, Chia-Yu Hwu `96 worked on cascade mechanisms. Her work centered around bifunctional enzymes. In particular, she considered phosphofructo kinase 2/fructo-2,6-bisphosphatase. This enzyme switches from a phosphatase to a kinase via phosphorylation and controls the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in liver. Ms. Hwu postulated a model that includes the bifunctional enzyme, control by phosphorylation and hormonal response. More work will be done on this model during the summer of `95.

In addition to his research activities, Professor Peacock-López taught Quantum Chemistry and Physical Chemistry where he has increased the use of MATHEMATICA as a tool to solve time-consuming numerical and symbolic calculations in physical chemistry. Finally, Professor Peacock-López' effort in teaching chemistry to children continued. This year, Professor Peacock-López gave demonstrations to second, fourth and sixth graders at the Williamstown Elementary School.

Associate Professor David Richardson continued his research efforts directed at the synthesis of monoterpenes with anesthetic activity that are derived from plants used in Chinese and Japanese folk medicine. Honors student Priscilla Carr `95 concentrated on this project this year; early evidence indicates that she achieved this year a total synthesis of paeoniflorigenone, a long-sought target of synthetic activity in the Richardson group. His other Honors student, Elizabeth Gray `95, concentrated her research efforts on isolating the chemical components responsible for the toxicity of Southeast Asian blow dart poisons. Elizabeth's work refined and extended the chemical isolation work established by previous students and she developed a microscale procedure for assessing the biological activity of fractions purified from poison samples, as well. Professor Richardson also served as a reviewer for the Journal of Organic Chemistry.

In addition to his research activities and serving as the College's Premedical Advisor, Professor Richardson taught the Fall semester of the Department's introductory organic chemistry sequence. He team-taught two courses with Professor Charles Lovett, Jr. during the Spring semester: Enzyme Kinetics and Reaction Mechanisms and Toxicology and Cancer. During July he taught the Chemistry laboratory portion of the Williams College Summer Science Program for Minority Students. During this year Professor Richardson oversaw the purchase, delivery and installation of the Department's new 300 MHz FT-NMR spectrometer. He also attended two week-long training courses dedicated to operation of the new instrument at Bruker Instruments, Inc. facilities in Richmond, CA and Billerica, MA. Finally, Professor Richardson served as chair of the College's Olmsted Committee.

Dr. Anne Skinner attended the 209th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, held in Anaheim, California in April 1995. She presented a paper in the Archaeological Chemistry Symposium, "The Use of Electron Spin Resonance To Determine The Age of Flint Artifacts". Mark Rudolph `96 was a co-author on the paper, which has been accepted for publication in the ACS Symposium Series volume for this symposium. In May of 1995 she attended the 4th International Symposium on ESR Dosimetry in Munich, Germany, where she presented a paper on "ESR Dating of Flints: Problems and Prospects". She was a member of the program committee and is a co-editor of the proceedings for this meeting. Dr. Skinner is continuing to collaborate with an archaeologist in Florida on the problem of dating paleoindian flints.

Also at the ACS meeting, in her role as campus safety consultant, Dr. Skinner organized a symposium on Safety in Small Colleges. Material from that symposium is to be published in the ACS journal Chemical Health and Safety.

Associate Professor (as of July 1, 1995) Jay Thoman continued research on the fluorescence quenching of gas-phase nitric oxide, supported by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund. Three publications related to this work, with Thoman as a co-author, appeared in press in 1994, including one paper with Mike Furlanetto `91 as first author. With Laralyn Bergstedt `96 and Honors student Heather Cox `95, Thoman expanded this research to study fluorescence quenching by alcohols and constructed apparatus to measure quenching in the temperature range 200 - 300 K. Cox presented results at the National Conference on Undergraduate Research in April. At the same conference, Catherine Shawl `95 presented her work on mercury and chromium in fish and sediment in the local environment. Shawl started her work during summer 1994 as a Keck Foundation Global Studies Fellow, and continued as part of her chemistry Honors thesis sponsored by Professor Thoman and Professor David Dethier of the Geology Department.

Professor Thoman again taught CHEM 101, Concepts of Chemistry, ENVI/CHEM 110 Environmental Chemistry and the chemistry portion of the science seminar, ENVI 102 Introduction to Environmental Science. In January 1996, Prof. Thoman retires as departmental seminar coordinator and takes on the responsibility of department chair.


Nicholas Byrne, Priscilla Carr, Mark Cordes, Heather Cox, Rajiv Doshi, Jebrell Glover,
Elizabeth Gray, Grant Harbison, Jonathan Hargreaves, Jennifer Hood, Elizabeth Juang, Jonathan Nitschke, Anne Normand, Daniel Patterson, Jean Marie Pesola, Catherine Shawl, Christopher Song, Kirsten Williams, Donny Wong
Senior Research Projects
Professor William V. Shaw `55
University of Leicester
"Chemical Anatomy of Antibiotic Resistance by Enzymatic Acetylation"
Professor Lawrence J. Kaplan
Williams College
"The Evidence Never Lies - But Is It Admissible: DNA Profiling and the O.J. Simpson Case"
Professor Gary E. Wnek
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
"Plastics That Conduct Electricity"
Professor John K. Snyder
Boston University
Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
"Dienophilicity of Indole in Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder reactions: Exploration and Synthetic Applications"
Professor Sylvia T. Ceyer
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
"Dynamics of Sticky Collisions with a Surface: Splats, Hammers, Sink-holes"
Professor Stuart Rice
University of Chicago
Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar
"Modern Aspects of the Theory of Unimolecular Reactions"
Professor Karen E. Wetterhahn
Dartmouth College
"The Carcinogen Chromium (VI): Reactive Intermediates and DNA Damage"
Professor Margaret A. Tolbert
University of Colorado, Boulder
Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
"Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion"
Professor Scott C. Mohr `62
Boston University
"Small, Acid-Soluble Spore Proteins (SASPs): How Dormant Bacteria Alter the Photochemistry of DNA"
Dr. Ellen Ochoa
Bernhard Visiting Fellow
"Space Shuttle Mission STS-66: Atmospheric Research Flight"
"Stratospheric Ozone Research on Space Shuttle Mission STS-66"
Dr. Lyal Hood
Office of Laboratories and Scientific Services, U.S. Customs Service
"Analytical Chemistry in the U.S. Customs Service"
Professor Bruce Ganem
Cornell University
Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
"Studies on Chorismate Mutase: Implications for Mechanism and Catalysis"


Rebecca L. Bryant
- Unknown
Nicholas P. Byrne
- Unknown
Priscilla W. Carr
- M.D. University of Massachusetts Medical School
Mark A. Cordes
- M.D. Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Heather A. Cox
- Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, Harvard University
Alison K. Criss
- Ph.D. Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School
Rajiv R. Doshi
- Medical School
Seamus C. Fernandez
- Unknown
Jebrell K. Glover
- Ph.D. Chemistry, University of California, San Diego
Elizabeth Gray
- M.D. Dartmouth Medical School
W. Grant Harbison
- M.D. University of Washington Medical School
Jonathan B. Hargreaves
- Teaching high school chemistry
Jennifer K. Hood
- Ph.D, Biological & BioMedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School
Elizabeth Juang
- Work for 2 or 3 years, then graduate school in biophysical chemistry or some related field
Noory Y. Kim
- Unknown
Maureen E. Mahowald
- Graduate school in biochemistry
Amy C. McNutt
- Research in the Pharmacology Department, Cornell University Medical School
Matthew S. Miller
- Co-founder, Summit Waste Consultants, Lee's Summit, Missouri
Heidi R. Narins
- M.D. SUNY, Buffalo School of Medicine
Jonathan R. Nitschke
- Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Anne N. Normand
- M.D./M.P.H. Program, Tufts University
Daniel E. Patterson
- Ph.D. Organic Chemistry, Stanford University
Jean Marie Pesola
- Ph.D. BioMedical Sciences, Harvard University
Sacha D. Place
- Unknown
Catherine E. Shawl
- Ph.D. Inorganic/Archaeological Chemistry, Northwestern University
Christopher S. Song
- M.D. Tufts University School of Medicine
Helen E. Spande
- Unknown
Thomas L. Wang
- Unknown
Kirsten M. Williams
- Unknown
Donny Wong
- Ph.D. Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Harvard School of Public Health


The Department of Computer Science welcomed one new member to our faculty this year. Assistant Professor Andrea Danyluk joined the department, after spending four years as project leader of the Adaptive Expert Systems Project at NYNEX Science and Technology, Inc. Professor Danyluk received her Ph.D. in Computer Science from Columbia University in 1992 and her Bachelor's degree from Vassar College in 1984. Her specialty is Artificial Intelligence, especially Machine Learning in the context of "real-world" applications, such as expert systems.

Promotions were approved for two members of our department this year. Bill Lenhart was promoted to full professor, effective July 1, 1995, and Tom Murtagh was promoted to the same rank, effective July 1, 1996. In addition, Duane Bailey's promotion to Associate Professor takes effect this July. Our secretary, Beth Koch, became a real mom this Spring (after taking care of us for the past few years), and she has left the department to raise her son Zach. While we will miss her, we are also delighted to welcome our new secretary, Marie St. John.

In recent years, we have been pleased to see many of our majors become involved in research projects and then go on to more advanced study in Computer Science at the graduate level. This year, we had an unusually small number of graduates in Computer Science (4), but they set a record of 100% participation in research and 100% enrollment in Computer Science graduate programs. Three of four completed honors theses. Next year they will be entering graduate programs at Brown University, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Oregon and the University of Delaware. Stina Bridgeman `95 received a National Science Foundation graduate fellowship to support her studies at Brown.

In addition to saying farewell to this year's graduates, we welcome 18 members of the class of `97 as new majors. They join 14 majors from the class of `96 to form the largest group of Computer Science majors since the department was founded.

As in past years, many of our students have spent the summer on campus working with faculty this year. During the summer of 1994, Dan Fasulo `94, Stina Bridgeman `95, Stephen McLaughry `95, Leaf Petersen `96 and Jasper Rosenberg `96 worked as summer research assistants. Kimberly Tabtiang `96 served as our laboratory assistant. Work is just beginning for this summer's assistants: Alice Bernhiem `96, Sarah Calvo `96, Leaf Petersen `96, Jasper Rosenberg `96, Kimberly Tabtiang `96 and Hank Zill `97.

Several additions to our curriculum were made this year. Andrea Danyluk developed a new course for non-majors: CS 108 Artificial Intelligence: Image and Reality. She taught the course in the Spring. She presented a paper describing the course last November at the Symposium on Improving the Instruction of Introductory Artificial Intelligence (sponsored by the American Association for Artificial Intelligence).

Bill Lenhart developed a new Winter Study course, called The Mathematics of Games and Puzzles. This course discussed famous (and not so famous) puzzles and games, including Rubic's Cube, Instant Insanity, Nim and Spin Out, and showed how one could master these games and puzzles by using mathematical techniques from abstract algebra, graph theory and other areas of discrete mathematics. Bill also took over the teaching of the computer graphics course for Computer Science Majors, an adventure from which he is currently recovering....

Professor Kim Bruce also introduced a new Winter Study course. His course was entitled Creating the Williams Adventure Game. In spite of the frivolous title, the course took a careful look at object-oriented design and analysis, a relatively new technique for planning complex computer programs. The final project involved students working in teams to design and implement a computerized "adventure" game set on the Williams campus.

Kim also continued work on the course he introduced just last year, CS 137. In June he presented a talk, "CS 137, Programming paradigms and data structures," at the annual summer meeting of the Liberal Arts Computer Science Consortium. He also chaired a session at the same meeting on the place of object-oriented programming languages in the Computer Science undergraduate curriculum. He presented another paper on CS 137 at the NECUSE (New England Consortium on Undergraduate Science Education) Workshop on Computer Science Curricula at Harvard University in January. He also chaired and reported for a working group on curricula for intermediate and advanced computer science courses. In the fall, Professors Bruce and Murtagh taught two classes on Hypercard for elementary school teachers at the Williamstown Elementary School. Both also served on a Technology Advisory Committee at Mount Greylock High School.

The department was pleased to participate again in the Class of 1960 Scholars Program This year, support from this program enabled us to bring two distinguished visitors to campus. John Savage of Brown University gave two talks on his work on theoretical aspects of Computer Science. Dorothy Denning of Georgetown University discussed technical and social issues relating to the use of advanced cryptographic techniques in conjunction with computer communication networks.

Professor Duane Bailey continued his research on specifying communication for parallel systems. During the summer of 1994, he and Steve McLaughry `95 implemented the Linder Programming Layer. Linder implements and extends many of the concepts made popular by Gelernter's Linda(TM) environment. In these systems, programmers write distributed programs by managing data ("tuples") in a shared database. McLaughry and Bailey augmented the model with multiple (concurrent) tuple spaces and new, performance-motivated operations that combine multiple (perhaps distributed) tuple-space requests into a single database update.

The long-term goal of Linder is to provide a spectrum of open, extensible, public domain distributed systems that trade ease of programming for performance and correctness. This summer Alice Bernheim `96 begins work on improving the performance of the database that underlies all Linder projects. Bernheim will consider distributed debugging in her honors work this coming year.

In March, Bailey gave a Faculty Lecture Series talk entitled, "A Puzzling Model for Computation." The thesis of the talk was that a special class of oriented sliding block puzzles (recall the child's 15-piece puzzle) can be used to model digital circuits and, in particular, a class of finite state machines or "computers." Our experience with computers ("They're cool! They're complex! They're impossible!") therefore, can be translated into direct statements about these puzzles. Certain infinite sliding block puzzles are so complex that it is impossible to determine (in the spirit of Gödel's incompleteness proof) if they may be solved in a finite amount of time. Of course, most of us suspected this all along.

In April, Bailey attended a NECUSE workshop on the role of parallel programming in the undergraduate curriculum, held at Wellesley College. He also was a co-editor of the Council on Undergraduate Research's debut Directory of Undergraduate Mathematics and Computer Science Programs.

In May, Bailey began cooperative work with University of Oregon researchers Professor Jan Cuny (Computer Science) and Professor Roger Haydock (Material Sciences Institute). The goal of the project is to provide fast mechanisms for specification, simulation, and visualization of cooperative processes (superconductivity, magnetism, etc.) involving millions of molecules. Typically, the process involves manipulation of large, but sparse matrices. For crystals, significant progress has been made using data structures that are dynamically grown in a way that simulates the crystal's growth.

Professor Kim Bruce continued his research on the semantics and design of object-oriented programming languages. After working for several years on the mathematical semantics of object-oriented languages, he has spent the last several years applying the semantic concepts to the design of better programming languages. The goal is to design languages which are very expressive, yet have a simple conceptual model and make it easier to catch more type errors at compile-time.

During the summer of 1994, Leaf Petersen `96 and Jasper Rosenberg `96 worked with Professor Bruce in further developing PolyTOIL, a polymorphic object-oriented language designed over the last few years as part of the senior honors theses of Angela Schuett `93 and Rob van Gent `92. They were able to clean up a number of rough points in the concrete syntax of the language, provide support for recursively-defined functions, classes, and data types, add some new data types, provide support for selective hiding of methods, and add more flexibility to the type-checker. This work involved very significant modifications to the parser, type checker, and run-time support system for the interpreter. They also began writing a reference manual for PolyTOIL.

Somewhat strikingly, it was discovered that subtyping did not play as important a role in the language as the concept of "matching". As a result, Leaf will commence work in the summer of 1995 with Professor Bruce on developing a language in which the role of matching is more central and subtyping is omitted. This will continue as his honors thesis during his senior year.

Adam Seligman `95 did an honors thesis with Professor Bruce on the semantics of the object-oriented core of C++. One of the most interesting findings was the importance of the statically-determined features of the language. One normally expects that the semantics of message passing in object-oriented languages is almost entirely determined at run time. However, in C++ the combined impact of overloading and messages sent to expanded objects (those not referred to by pointers) leads to a high percentage of message calls being statically determinable. Adam's careful analysis of the complexities of C++, however, only added to Bruce's concern about the complexity of the language.

Professor Bruce's paper "A Paradigmatic Object-Oriented Programming Language: Design, Static Typing and Semantics," was published in the June, 1994, issue of the Journal of Functional Programming. In July he gave a talk, "Matching is better than constraining for bounded polymorphism in object-oriented languages", and also chaired a session at the Second International NSF-ESPRIT Workshop on the Foundations of Object-Oriented Languages held in Paris. Professor Bruce was principal investigator of the NSF grant which supported the U.S. participants in this meeting.

In March, 1995, Professor Bruce presented a lecture, "A Polymorphic Statically-Typed Object-Oriented Programming Language with Guaranteed Type-Safety," at Bell Labs in New Jersey. Later that month he participated in a panel on "Open Problems in the Semantics of Object-Oriented Languages" at the 1995 Conference on the Mathematical Foundations of Programming Semantics in New Orleans.

Professor Bruce served on several program committees and chaired several sessions at conferences this year. He served on the program committees for the `94 and `95 ACM OOPSLA (Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Architecture) conferences, and chaired a session at the `94 meeting in Portland, Oregon, in October. He also was on the program committee and chaired a session of the 1995 Workshop on State in Programming Languages in San Francisco in January. He has also been named to the Editorial Advisory Board of the forthcoming CRC Handbook of Computer Science and Engineering. Professor Bruce will be on leave in the fall at the Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge University, which will be having a special 6 month program on the semantics of computation.

Andrea Danyluk continues her research in the field of Machine Learning, a subfield of Artificial Intelligence. Research in machine learning focuses on the development and analysis of algorithms that allow a computer system to improve its own performance. Professor Danyluk's work focuses on machine learning in the context of expert systems, computer systems that perform tasks that would generally be performed by a human expert. Her research investigates the performance of machine learning algorithms in the presence of error. Others have long recognized the need to consider the possible effects of noise in the data from which a learning algorithm extrapolates new knowledge. However, they have defined noise as random error in a small number of data points.

Professor Danyluk has concentrated on the application of machine learning to "real world" systems, where data may contain many forms of error. She has classified sources of error and is exploring the different ways in which they impact machine learning. She is also investigating the development of expert interfaces for data collection. This year she gave an informal Bronfman Lunch talk describing her work, entitled "Adaptive Expert Systems (or The Miracle Of Receiving Dialtone)." Professor Danyluk continues to work closely with researchers at NYNEX, as well as with researchers at the University of California at Irvine. Kimberly Tabtiang `96 will be working with Professor Danyluk this summer.

Professor Danyluk wrote several papers this year. She wrote "Tuning Numeric Parameters of a Knowledge-Based System for Troubleshooting the Local Loop of the Telephone Network" with Michael Pazzani and Christopher Merz of the University of California at Irvine. This paper has been submitted to IEEE Expert (Special Issue on Intelligent Telecommunication Systems). In August she will present "A Comparison of Data Sources for Machine Learning in a Telephone Trouble Screening Expert System" at the Workshop on Data Engineering for Inductive Learning to be held in conjunction with the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

Professor Danyluk has been invited to present a paper at the Workshop on Applying Machine Learning in Practice, which will be held in July in conjunction with the International Machine Learning Conference.

Bill Lenhart continues his research in graph theory and computational geometry. Currently he is working on problems associated with graph layout, in particular the classification of graphs which admit certain types of drawings called proximity drawings. A proximity drawing of a graph is one in which adjacent vertices are drawn relatively close together, while non-adjacent vertices are drawn farther apart. Different definitions of "close together" give rise to different types of drawings.

During the past summer Bill spent a month as a visiting scholar at the University of Rome, where he continued his collaborations with researchers there on graph layout problems. He also supervised the research of Stina Bridgeman `95 on a problem in a different area of graph theory: studying the algorithmic complexity of finding Hamiltonian cycles in certain types of graphs known as grid graphs without holes. Stina made substantial progress on this problem, and it became the focus of her senior honors thesis. Bill also supervised the honors work of a mathematics major, Michael Pelsmajer `95, who investigated new definitions of proximity and began to classify the graphs which admitted proximity drawings under these new definitions.

Bill had two papers accepted at the international workshop Graph Drawing `94, held at Princeton University this past October. He presented one of the papers: "Proximity Drawability: A Survey," co-authored with Giuseppe Di Battista and Giuseppe Liotta, both of the University of Rome. The second paper, "Proximity Constraints and Representable Trees," written jointly with Prosenjit Bose, Giuseppe Di Battista and Giuseppe Liotta, was presented by Giuseppe Liotta, who has visited Williams several times over the last two years. Bill also continues to referee papers for journals and conferences.

Tom Murtagh's research this year concentrated on the investigation of contention based protocols for high-speed ring networks. He continued work begun with Daniel Yu `93 on the design of priority-based collision resolution schemes for contention rings. He also began the investigation of a new contention-based protocol based on adding optimistic transmissions to the standard token ring protocol. The objective in all these schemes is to devise ring protocols that provide the low delay at low load associated with contention protocols such as Ethernet and the high throughput associated with token based protocols. In fact, because the protocols Tom has designed enable multiple stations to transmit simultaneously, they provide throughput significantly higher than the token ring. Tom's work this year was assisted by Chris Umans `96 who collected performance data on variations of these protocols by conducting computer simulations of ring networks. This summer, Sarah Calvo `96 will work with Tom to analyze the expected behavior of these protocols mathematically.

In July of 1994, Tom represented the department at the Computer Research Association's semi-annual meeting for chairs of Computer Science Departments. He also attended the ACM SIGPLAN Programming Language Design and Implementation Conference.


Tom Longtin
Helio Animations
"An Animated Evolution of Gears"
Kathi Fisler `91
University of Indiana
"Diagrammatic Reasoning & Its Application to Hardware Verification"
Jasper M. Rosenberg `96 and Leaf E. Petersen `96
Williams College
"A Summer of PolyTOIL"
Forrest P. Trepte `96
Williams College
"Bug Collecting in Philadelphia"
A. J. Bernheim `96
Williams College
"ZPL, Gargoyles and Mt. Rainier: A Summer of Research at the University of Oregon"
Donna Brown
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
"A Survey of VLSI Channel Routing Results "
Joel Spencer
Courant Institute, New York University
"Dynamic Probabilistic Methods"
Lisa N. Masterman `95
Williams College
"Computer Visualization"
Stephen W. McLaughry `95
Williams College
"Linda & You: (Almost) Painless Parallel Programming"
Adam Seligman `95
Williams College
"Building a C++ Compiler"
Stephen W. McLaughry `95
Williams College
"An Approach to Persistent Tuples in a Distributed Tuple Space "
Kim Bruce
Williams College
"Designing a Next-Generation Object-Oriented Language"
Adam Seligman `95
Williams College
"SHOVIT C++: A Semantics of Hiding, Overloading, Virtual Functions, and Inheritance with Type Rules for C++"
Stina Bridgeman `95
Williams College
"Finding Hamiltonian Cycles in Grid Graphs Without Holes "
Lyle McGeoch
Amherst College
"Data Structures for Traveling Salesmen"
John Savage
Brown University
Class of 1960's Scholars Speaker
"The Role of Theory in Computer Science"
"A Model for Multi-Grained Parallelism"
Jim Kurose
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
"Adventures in Real-Time and Multimedia Communication Networking "
Dorothy Denning
Georgetown University
Class of 1960's Scholars Speaker
"Codes, Crime, and Clipper: The Encryption and Privacy Debate"
"The Clipper Chip: Safeguarding the Keys"


Stina S. Bridgeman:
- Ph.D. Program at Brown University
Lisa N. Masterman:
- Ph.D. Program at the University of Delaware
Stephen W. McLaughry:
- Ph.D. Program at the University of Oregon
Adam L. Seligman:
- Graduate Program at the University of Texas, Austin


For the first time in several years the Geology Department has been at "full strength" all year, with no sabbaticals or other leaves to diminish our staff. Capitalizing on this opportunity, the Department offered two new full-semester courses and two new Winter Study Projects, in addition to unbracketing a number of courses that were not offered last year due to scheduled leaves. In the fall Profs. David Dethier and Paul Karabinos taught Earth Catastrophes (GEOL/ENVI 107), and in the spring Bill Fox launched Remote Sensing and GIS (GEOL/ENVI 214). These two new courses were, in many ways, direct opposites; Earth Catastrophes, with a lecture format and high enrollments, had to move out of the building, while Remote Sensing was taught to a capacity group of only 12 geology, environmental studies, and computer science students, entirely in a "hands-on" mode, in the computer graphics lab in Clark Hall. During Winter Study, David Dethier offered a course on Commercial Nordic Skiing, which was timed to coincide with the current discussion of a new nordic center at Greylock Glen in Adams, and Bud Wobus taught Geology of the National Parks, a "vicarious tour" of selected parks and monuments that focused on the geological basis for their scenery.

There have been several noteworthy milestones among our staff during this past academic year. Paul Karabinos has been promoted to Full Professor, effective July 1 of this year. Prof. David DeSimone and Office Manager/Secretary Pat Acosta each marked ten years of service to the Geology Department this spring. Bill Fox, the Edward Brust Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, has announced that he will retire at the end of the next academic year. Next year this report will include a review of the many contributions Bill has made to his department and his profession since joining the faculty in 1961.

Our students have once again received an impressive array of academic awards and honors during the current college year. Highlighting this list are Demian Saffer `95 and Greg Balco `92 who became the fourth and fifth Williams geology majors in the last three years to receive National Science Foundation (NSF) Fellowships for graduate study in the geological sciences - a record unmatched by any other undergraduate geology department in the nation! Demian was also elected to Phi Beta Kappa at the end of his junior year. At commencement five seniors were elected to associate membership in Sigma Xi, the scientific research society, for their especially original senior theses and for promise in a scientific career; they are Michele Koppes, Laura Libbey, Sarah Mills, Demian Saffer, and Max Simian. Mike Montag received both the Freeman Foote Prize in Geology for giving the best oral presentation of his senior thesis results and the Thomas Hardie Prize in Environmental Studies for an exceptional project (his senior thesis) relating to the environment. Demian Saffer was selected by the geology faculty to receive the David Major Award, presented each year to an outstanding geology senior in memory of David N. Major, `81. John Phipps won the Mineralogical Society of America award as the top student in mineralogy and petrology courses.

Seven seniors were selected early in the year as Class of 1960 Scholars; they are

Class of 1960 Scholars in Geology

Michele Koppes	John Phipps 
Laura Libbey	Demian Saffer
Sarah Mill	Jeff Schmidt
Mike Montag

This program provides a higher level of interaction between those selected as Class of 1960 scholars and the two speakers who were brought to campus as Class of 1960 Fellows during the spring term.

Two geology students, Jim Heyes `96 and Samantha Teplitzky `98, received scholarships from the National Science Scholars Program, among the 15 awarded at Williams. Seven incoming juniors and seniors have received scholarships from the David Major Fund and the Freeman Foote Fund to attend month-long field geology or marine science programs this summer. Jim Heyes, Myra Hill, and Rebecca Thomas, `96, and Martha Folley, Jo Holbert, and Patrick Russell, `97, are enrolled in the field geology course directed by the University of Pennsylvania at the Yellowstone-Bighorn Research Association station near Red Lodge, Montana. Alison Kopelman `97, will participate in a 5 week marine science course at the Duke University Marine Lab in Beaufort, NC.

During the academic year our colloquium program continued to flourish under the leadership of Paul Karabinos. A complete list of speakers and their topics appears at the end of this report. Several speakers were brought to Williams under the auspices of endowed lectureship programs, and we wish to acknowledge those here. In the fall, our speaker in the Sperry Lecture Series (in conjunction with the Five College-University Geology Lecture Series) was Dr. Kip Hodges of MIT. His profusely illustrated main address on the evening of October 5 was entitled "The Dynamics of Himalayan Orogenesis." This was a topic of considerable departmental interest since one of last year's honors students, Rebecca Edwards `94, had worked with Dr. Hodges' team in Nepal the summer before her senior year and had based her thesis on that work. The Sperry Lecture Series, established in 1991 by a gift from William E. Sperry `51 and his family, makes a special point of sponsoring speakers with whom our students are acquainted through their own research.

In the spring semester, two lecturers were brought to the campus under the Class of 1960 Scholars and Fellows Program. Both spoke on topics related to this year's theme, "Extensional Tectonics." On March 1 Prof. George Davis of the University of Arizona lectured on "Mid-Tertiary and Basin and Range Extension in the American Southwest," following up the next day with "Regional Structural Deformation in the Bryce Canyon/Zion Canyon Region of the Colorado Plateau." On April 27, Prof. Bob Varga from the College of Wooster spoke on "Large-Scale Segmentation in Continental Rifts."

A special bonus in this year's lecture schedule was the pair of talks, sponsored by Sigma Xi, given by our own Prof. Bill Fox. It was a special occasion for Bill, who had presented the first Sigma Xi lectures at the college some 25 years ago. He gave two lectures during consecutive afternoons in April on the topic of "Remote Sensing," based on work he had done in preparing for his new semester-long course in that field and on research he conducted with Rebecca Thomas `97 last summer during a Keck-sponsored project in Texas.

While the research contributions of geology faculty at professional meetings are reported later, it is noteworthy that our students - particularly senior thesis students - are also becoming more visible at these meetings. Two of last year's seniors, Chris Brookfield and Dan White `94, collaborated with Prof. David Dethier on a poster presentation at the national meeting of the Geological Society of America in Seattle in October: "Thick Glacial Drift and Divergent Striae - Clues to Changes in Ice Flow During Retreat of Continental Ice through the San Juan Islands, Washington." Three current seniors gave poster presentations based on their thesis research at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Section of the Geological Society of America (GSA) in Hartford during spring vacation. Sarah Mills presented "Post-Pleistocene Paleo-Nearshore Features in Long Island Sound as Found in Seismic Profiles." John Phipps' presentation was entitled "Metavolcanic Wall Rocks of the Gouldsboro Pluton, Dyer Neck and Vicinity, Maine." And Demian Saffer gave two presentations, one of them in poster format on "Flood Channels of Glacial Lake Bascom: A Miniature Scablands" and the second one orally: "Stress Perturbations Near Weak Fault Systems: Applications to the San Andreas Fault System, California." (The latter was judged by GSA to be one of the best student presentations at the meeting.) All three students received travel grants from the Geological Society and additional assistance to defray expenses at the meeting from the McAleenan Family Fund for Geology. Profs. Dethier, Fox, Karabinos, and Wobus joined them in attending the meeting.

Later in the spring another senior, Max Simian, traveled with Prof. Markes Johnson to the third International Meeting on the Geology of the Baja California Peninsula held in La Paz, Mexico. Simian, who is from Chile, delivered his paper in Spanish on the topic "Foundering of the Pliocene Santa Ines Archipelago in the Gulf of California." His travel expenses to the meeting were funded by the Nils Anderson Fund at Williams.

Additional research experience and participation in an annual symposium are provided to Williams students and faculty by the Twelve College Geology Consortium, funded by the W.M. Keck Foundation of Los Angeles. Initiated in 1986 in response to a proposal from Profs. Fox and Wobus at Williams, the consortium has received $2.6 million to support collaborative research in geology by students and faculty from the 12 consortium colleges. Additional funding has been provided by NSF for the last several years to include minority students and faculty from outside the consortium schools in the program . In December 1994, the Keck Foundation renewed its commitment to the consortium by providing an additional $900,000 to support the program for two more years. Cathy Manduca, Adjunct Professor at Carleton College and a 1980 Williams geology graduate, is the new coordinator of the consortium.

Last summer five Williams students and three faculty members participated in Keck-sponsored research projects. Mike Montag `95 and Prof. David DeSimone studied the effects of mining on an alpine environment in southern Montana near Yellowstone National Park. John Phipps `95 and Prof. Bud Wobus worked on metavolcanic rocks along the Maine coast. Peter Taylor `95 (also advised by Prof. Wobus) studied the geochemistry of volcanic rocks in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. In projects designed for students in the summer after their sophomore year, Rebecca Thomas `96 and Prof. Bill Fox worked on the applications of remote sensing to geologic problems in southern Texas, and Will Morgan `96 investigated geologic structures in ancient metamorphic rocks of the Quetico Wilderness of southern Ontario. These students and faculty presented the results of their summer field work and academic year lab studies at the 8th annual Keck Undergraduate Research Symposium in Geology at Pomona College, California, in early April. In addition to sharing information about their research, all participants took part in a day-long field trip along the San Andreas Fault north of Los Angeles. An abstract volume and field trip guidebook were published for the symposium.

During the summer of 1994, two students worked with Prof. David Dethier on glacial geomorphology projects in the Puget Lowland of Washington State. Michele Koppes `95 and Jeff Schmidt `95 received support for field work and travel from Bronfman Summer Science funds. Sarah Mills `95 also received Bronfman support to study seismic profiles of Holocene nearshore sediment features in Long Island Sound, a project supervised by Dr. Ralph Lewis of the Long Island Sound Resource Center at Avery Point, CT, and Prof. Bill Fox. Laura Libbey `95 and Max Simian `95 worked at Williams during the summer doing bibliographic research and developing applications of computer graphics for their senior thesis projects in Baja California. Their field work with Prof. Markes Johnson took place during this year's Winter Study Period and was funded by Markes' grants from the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society and NSF (International Program). Demian Saffer `95 was supported last summer by the Sperry Family Fund for Geology in his work with Paul Karabinos on mathematical models for stress perturbations along the San Andreas Fault. Aengus Jeffers `96 received a grant from the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska/Fairbanks for his work in remote sensing at the Institute.

Next summer Williams students and faculty will again work together on research projects in the field, many of them sponsored by the Keck grant. Profs. Paul Karabinos and David DeSimone will co-direct a Keck project based at Williams on the structural geomorphology of northern Berkshire County; Will Crane `97 will be part of that team. Jonathan Payne `97 will travel to northwestern Wyoming to join a Keck group interpreting glacial features in the Clarks Fork region. Myra Hill `96 will be in southern Oregon to work in mountains of a different kind - the volcanic Cascades. Rebecca Thomas `96 will be based in the Tobacco Root Mountains of southwest Montana, working on the petrology and structure of ancient metamorphic rocks, and Jim Heyes `96 will work on a Keck project at the northern termination of the San Andreas Fault near Cape Mendocino, California. Bryan Stanley `96 will be part of a Keck research group in the Northern Apennines of Italy. After working during the academic year to interpret field results and analyze samples, these students and their Williams advisers will be joined by some ninety other students and faculty to present their results at the 9th Keck Geology Symposium, to be held at Williams April 11-13, 1996.

In addition to these Keck-sponsored projects scheduled to begin summer 1995, two other students will join Prof. David Dethier in the San Juan Islands of Puget Sound, Washington, to study the effects of deglaciation in the Puget lowland. Will Morgan `96 will be sponsored by a grant to Dethier from the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, and Mary Ann Hirshfeld `96 will be funded by a CURSOR grant she won in national competition from the Council on Undergraduate Research.

Research Associate Gudveig Baarli helped host two visiting Russian geologists during July and early August (see more below under Johnson). She also attended the biennial field conference of the Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy on August 21-28 in Vienna and the Carnic Alps of Austria. Her monographic work on the Silurian brachiopods of southern Norway finally yielded page proofs in May and is expected to realize publication in the journal Fossils and Strata by mid-year 1995.

David DeSimone (CES and Geology) joined Eric Leonard (Colorado College) and project director Bob Carson (Whitman) for a four-week Keck research program centered in Cooke City, MT. The faculty, technical assistant Eric Jensen (Stanford), and ten students from the Keck Geology Consortium explored varied aspects of the periglacial, glacial, and environmental geology of the Beartooth Mountains, Absaroka Mountains, and Clark's Fork Yellowstone River drainage basin. Mike Montag `95 presented the results of his thesis research at the annual Keck symposium held at Pomona College in a paper and talk titled "A Morphological and Geochemical Comparison of a Partially Reclaimed Open Mine Pit to a Similar but Undisturbed Site, Cooke City, Montana."

David DeSimone continues to shape his climatology/paleoclimatology course to focus on geologically recent evidence for climate change, especially non-linear response of the climate system as demonstrated by the Younger Dryas event from 11.2-9.9 Ka. DeSimone is looking forward to returning to sharing the teaching of Environmental Geology in the fall and Introduction to Environmental Science in the spring.

On the research front, DeSimone continues his consulting work on water supply wells in Hancock, MA, and the geology and archaeology of Paleoindian sites in the Hoosic Valley, NY, among others. DeSimone will renew his studies of the timing of late deglacial events and flood discharges through the lower Mohawk Valley and Hudson Valley of eastern New York, doing field work with Gary Wall (Rensselaer) during June and July of 1995. Wall is a Ph.D.. candidate in glacial geomorphology at RPI, Troy, NY, and DeSimone is on his doctoral committee.

David Dethier continued mapping of late Pleistocene glacial deposits in the San Juan Islands of Washington as part of his research about the climatic, sea-level, and isostatic processes that resulted in rapid retreat of the most recent continental ice from the area about 13,500 years ago. Michele Koppes `95 and Jeff Schmidt `95 worked in the field with Professor Dethier, studying thick deposits of glacial sediment in detail. Koppes used her field work and laboratory studies in her senior honors thesis, whereas Schmidt completed an extended independent study based on his field studies. Dethier presented a paper "Chronology of Latest Pleistocene Ice Retreat and Isostatic Rebound, Northern Puget Lowland, Washington" and was a co-author with Dan White `95 and Chris Brookfield `95 on a paper entitled "Thick Glacial Drift and Divergent Striae: Clues to Changes in Ice Flow During Retreat of Continental Ice Through the San Juan Island, Washington," both presented at the Geological Society of America (GSA) National Meeting in Seattle in October, 1994. Dethier was also one of the leaders of a three-day post-meeting field trip that examined glacial deposits exposed in the Puget Sound area. In June 1995, he received a two-year grant from the Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society to continue field studies with students in the northern Puget Lowland.

Dethier continued his research collaboration with Steve Reneau (Los Alamos National Laboratory), studying large landslides along the Rio Grande in White Rock Canyon, New Mexico. The slides have moved repeatedly during wet periods in late Pleistocene time, damming the Rio Grande and forming extensive lakes that record the timing of climate change with considerable precision. Some of this work was published as a Los Alamos National Laboratory report "Landslides and Other Mass Movements Near Technical Area 33, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico," and Dethier and Reneau have submitted several additional manuscripts for publication.

Dethier served as Director of Research for Hopkins Memorial Forest, helping to coordinate ongoing collection of weather, stream flow, precipitation chemistry and other environmental data from the Forest. With Jay Thoman (Chemistry), Dethier supervised Catherine Shawl's `95 senior honors thesis in Chemistry. Her thesis examined the concentrations of chromium and mercury in local stream and pond sediment, and in fish that live in ponds and rivers. This work continues research by several previous Chemistry honors students on levels of various trace metals in the local environment.

Professor William T. Fox returned from sabbatical leave where he wrote a paper based on a Keck project in Gaspé and developed a new course, GEOL 214, Remote Sensing and GIS. During June 1994, he received a course development grant from the Global Studies Program at Williams College to develop programs and image software for the Remote Sensing and GIS course which was taught in spring 1995. During July and August 1994, he was a faculty member on a Keck summer research project entitled "Geologic Remote Sensing and Multi-spectral Image Processing" which was held at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. The summer program was taught by three faculty and attended by thirteen students from ten colleges in the Keck Geology Consortium and three other colleges, Colgate University, Virginia State University, and SUNY College at Buffalo. The sophomore project for minority students was also supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation. In April 1995, Dr. Fox attended the 8th Annual Keck Research Symposium in Geology at Pomona College, Claremont, California. At the Keck meeting his sophomore advisee, Rebecca Thomas `96 and Mary Ellen Sault presented a poster entitled "Shoreline Changes of San Luis Pass, Texas, from 1930 to 1990." In March 1995, Dr. Fox attended the Northeast Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America at Cromwell, Connecticut, where his honors student, Sarah Mills `95, presented a poster entitled "Seismic Evidence of a Holocene Marine Transgression in Long Island Sound." The project was jointly directed by Dr. Fox at Williams and Dr. Ralph Lewis, Director of the Connecticut Geological Research Station at Avery Point, Connecticut. A paper entitled "Penouille Spit, Evolution of a Complex Spit, Gaspé, Quebec, Canada" co-authored by Rebecca L. Haney and H. Allen Curran of Smith College was published in the spring 1995, issue of the Journal of Coastal Research. The paper was based on a Keck research project conducted in Gaspé during June 1989.

Professor Markes Johnson began his summer field season in June 94, immediately following Williams graduation ceremonies with a three-week trip to the People's Republic of China to work with Dr. Rong Jia-yu (Nanjing Institute of Geology & Paleontology) on the early Silurian paleogeography of South China. The visit was sponsored through a grant from the International Division of NSF, and the collaboration resulted in the completion of a manuscript on "A Stepped Karst Unconformity as an Early Silurian Rocky Shoreline in Guizhou Province (South China)" submitted to the journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. In Nanjing, Prof. Johnson delivered two illustrated lectures: "Applications of Paleontology and Geology to the Study of Ancient Rocky Shores, with Examples from Australia, Baja California, Canada, and Egypt" and "The 2nd International Symposium on the Silurian System: the James Hall Meeting in 1996."

Returning home in late June, Prof. Johnson was joined in Williamstown through July by two honors students, Laura Libbey `95 and Max Simian `95, who initiated library and laboratory phases of study on topics related to Pleistocene and Pliocene rocky shorelines in Baja California Sur (Mexico). The Johnson-Baarli household also welcomed two visiting geologists from Russia: Dr. Yuri Tesakov (Novosibirsk Institute of Geology) and Dr. Nikolai Predtechensky (All-Union Geological Research Institute, St. Petersburg). Their visit was the first stage of an exchange project being sponsored under a grant from the National Geographic Society to study "Silurian global events of the North American and Siberian platforms." The second phase of the exchange begins in July 1995, when Markes goes through Moscow on the way to a month of field work in arctic Siberia.

August 1994, Prof. Johnson and Gudveig Baarli attended the biennial field conference of the Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy held in Vienna and the Carnic Alps of Austria. In Kotschach-Mauthen, he delivered a lecture on his recent experiences in China as part of the subcommission's proceedings. As Chairman of the Subcommission, he also officiated at the organization's biennial business meeting. Another version of the same talk on China was presented as a lecture to the Geology Department at Williams College on Oct. 19, 1994.

In January 1995, Prof. Johnson supervised field work by Laura Libbey `95 and Max Simian `95 at Punta Chivato in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Laura's work was funded by the second year of a grant from the Petroleum Research Fund (American Chemical Society), and Max's work was funded by the second year of a grant from the International Division of NSF. Markes presented a Bronfman lunch talk on "Separating Tectonic and Eustatic Components on Sea-Level Change: Adventures in the Pliocene Gulf of California and Silurian South China Sea." In April, Simian and Johnson attended the 3rd International Meeting on the Geology of the Baja California Peninsula held in La Paz, Mexico. The conference, which was well attended by Mexican and U.S. geologists from academia as well as industry, offered over 90 presentations on all geological aspects of Mexico's "frontier states." Simian, who reported on the results of his January field project, gave a presentation entitled "Foundering of the Pliocene Santa Ines Archipelago in the Gulf of California." Johnson made two oral presentations and organized a poster, covering three different research projects in Baja California. The poster on "Pliocene Stratigraphy and Depositional Systems of the Bahia Concepción Basins" included as a co-author former student Mark Mayall `93. The titles of Johnson's two talks were: "Bryozoan Nodules Built Around Andesite Clasts in the Late Pliocene of Baja California: Paleoecologic Implications and Closure Along the Panama Isthmus" and "Coastal Evolution of Late Cretaceous and Pleistocene Rocky Shores: Pacific Rim of Northern Baja California."

Research papers published in 1994-95 include one co-authored with Mexican field partner Jorge Ledesma-Vazquez (Universidad Autonoma de Baja California) in Ciencias Marinas and two co-authored with former students, Hovey Clark `94 and Jenn Zwiebel `94 in the Journal of Coastal Research. Prof. Johnson will be on sabbatical leave in 1995-96, during which time he will help organize the 2nd International Symposium on the Silurian System to be held in Rochester, NY, in August 1996.

Associate Professor of Geology Paul Karabinos and Demian Saffer `95 conducted research on stress near active faults during the summer of 1994. This work was the subject of Demian's senior thesis and a talk presented at the Northeastern Sectional Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Hartford, Connecticut, in March 1995, entitled "Stress perturbations near weak fault zones: applications to the San Andreas fault system, California." Using elastic theory, they constructed computer models showing how weak fault zones, such as the San Andreas fault in California, can profoundly affect the magnitude and orientation of crustal stresses near faults. This information can be used to understand movement along major faults and the development of subsidiary faults near large strike-slip zones.

Karabinos also attended a meeting in Grand Falls, Newfoundland, during August 1994, where he presented a paper based on his research on the newly recognized Shelburne Falls Arc in Massachusetts and Vermont with co-authors Heather Stoll `94, and J.C. Hepburn entitled "Arc rivals of the Taconian orogeny in western New England." The meeting was followed by a three-day field trip in the Gander zone of Newfoundland examining ancient island arcs and back arc basins preserved in the northwestern part of the island.

Karabinos also continued his geochronological research on the evaporation method for analyzing single grains of zircon and presented a paper at the Geological Society of America meeting in Seattle, Washington, entitled "The single-grain zircon evaporation method applied to highly discordant samples." A paper based on this work has been submitted to Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Following the meeting, Karabinos attended a three day field trip to the Cascade range, a magmatic arc in the northwest Pacific.

In March 1995, Karabinos attended a Keck workshop on teaching structural geology at the undergraduate level at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts.

Karabinos will be using a grant jointly sponsored by the Keck Foundation and the National Science Foundation for a project entitled "Structural Geomorphology of Northern Berkshire County." The $52,100 grant will support three faculty and ten students examining possible structural controls over the topography of the Williamstown area. David DeSimone from Williams College and John Leftwich from Old Dominion University, Virginia, will be the other faculty members on the project.

In the fall of 1994 Karabinos team taught a new course with David Dethier called Earth Catastrophes. Development of this course was sponsored by the Global Studies Program initiative and was designed to appeal to both science and non-science majors.

Professor and Chairman Bud Wobus co-directed, with Bob Wiebe of Franklin & Marshall College, a Keck Geology Consortium research project in coastal Maine for the second summer last year. The group of six students, from six different colleges of the Keck-sponsored Twelve College Geology Consortium, included John Phipps `95 from Williams. The project, which was based at Eagle Hill Wildlife Research Station near Steuben, studied the granitic plutons and metavolcanic wall rocks of the Schoodic and Petit Manan Peninsulas and of Gouldsboro and Dyer Neck. Later in the summer he directed the Williams Alumni College in the Rockies near Pikes Peak in Colorado, and visited another Keck project in the Oregon Cascades where one of his thesis advisees, Pete Taylor `95, was working. In October, he attended the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Seattle and was the Williams delegate to the Keck Geology Consortium's planning meeting held in conjunction with the GSA meeting. In December, he gave a Bronfman "Bag lunch" talk on "T. Nelson Dale at Williams - a Centennial plus a Year," and he served as a consultant to the geology department at Colorado College in Colorado Springs.

During Winter Study Period he taught a course on the Geology of the National Parks. He attended the Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America in Hartford in mid-March, where one of his advisees, John Phipps, gave a poster presentation. The following month he was one of six Williams participants at the 8th Annual Keck Undergraduate Research Symposium in Geology at Pomona College, where he was co-author, with Bob Wiebe, of a report, "Siluro-Devonian Plutonic and Associated Volcanic Rocks of the Coastal Maine Magmatic Province," published in the abstracts volume for the symposium. In May, he again served as a host and demonstrator for junior high school science students during their Saturday visit to Williams. Also in May, the Journal of Geology published a paper for which he was a co-author with Sheila Seaman (U. Mass) and others: "Volcanic Expression of Bimodal Volcanism: The Cranberry Island-Cadillac Mountain Complex, Coastal Maine."


Dr. Kip Hodges
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(Sperry Lecture Series in Geology)
"Geochronology of Very Slowly Cooled Geologic Samples: Laser 40Ar/39Ar Microprobe Data from the Southwestern U.S."
"The Dynamics of Himalayan Orogenesis"
Dr. Markes E. Johnson
Williams College
"Silurian Stepped Unconformity in South China"
Dr. Jillian F. Banfield
University of Wisconsin-Madison
"From Rocks to Soil: Chemical Weathering and Clay Formation in the Near Surface Environment"
Dr. Kimberly Hannula
Middlebury College
"Age of Blueschists on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: The Hazards of Dating Under Pressure"
Dr. Paul Bierman `85
University of Vermont
"Rates of Geomorphic Processes"
Dr. George Davis
University of Arizona
Class of 1960 Speaker
"Mid-Tertiary and Basin and Range Extension in the American Southwest"
Dr. Charles G. Cunningham
U.S. Geological Survey
"Gold, Silver, and Volcanics: Geological Field Work in South America"
Dr. Robert Varga
The College of Wooster
Class of 1960 Speaker
"Large-Scale Segmentation of Continental Rifts"
Senior Honors Thesis Presentations:
Michele Koppes `95
"The Last Icy Remains: A Sedimentological and Stratigraphical Analysis of Glaciomarine Diamicts in the San Juan Islands, Washington"
Laura Libbey `95
"Pleistocene Rocky Shorelines and the Record of Sea-Level Change at Punta Chivato, Baja California Sur"
Sarah Mills `95
"Seismic Evidence of Holocene Marine Transgression in Long Island Sound"
Michael Montag `95
"A Morphological and Geochemical Comparison of a Partially Reclaimed Open Mine Pit to a Similar but Undisturbed Site, Cooke City, Montana"
John Phipps `95
"The Metavolcanic Wall Rocks of the Gouldsboro Pluton: Dyer Neck and Vicinity, Maine"
Demian Saffer `95
"Stress Perturbations Near Active Faults: Applications to Southern California"
Maximino Simian `95
"Foundering of the Pliocene Santa Inez Archipelago in the Gulf of California: Baja California Sur, Mexico"
Peter Taylor `95
"Cascade Volcanics on the Southern Flanks of Brown Mountain, Southern Oregon"


Patrick Barnard
- Unknown
Brett Dalke
- Teaching English in Greece
Michele Koppes
- Moving to West Coast, graduate school 1-2 years
Laura Libbey
- Summer Intern with Alpine Ocean Seismic Survey; graduate school in Marine Science in the future
Sarah Mills
- Boston University Graduate School
Michael Montag
- Para-professional. at Colorado College Geology Dept.
David Nicholson
- Consulting with B.L.M. and Mesa State College, CO
John Phipps
- Trip Leader for Putney Student Travel in Australia, New Zealand
Demian Saffer
- Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Graduate School
Jeffrey Schmidt
- Camp Counselor for Summer `95
Maximino Simian
- Work in Chile for 1 year; graduate school 1996
Peter Taylor
- Unknown


For 1994-1995 the department enjoyed the additional support of courses in the history of astronomy, given by James R. Voelkel, `84, a visiting assistant professor of astronomy for the year, and in the history of Graeco-Roman medicine given by Prof. Sumi, of the Classics Department during Winter Study.

Given the proposed support for science and technology studies suggested by the Committee on Educational Policy, the department looks forward to having more faculty at Williams versed in the history, sociology, and philosophy of science and technology.

In July, 1994, Prof. Donald deB. Beaver spent several days at the Dibner Institute for the History of Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts, working with Prof. Eri Yagi, of Toyo University, Japan, on a paper describing education in the history of science in the 1960s in the United States.

In October, Profs. Beaver and Voelkel attended the annual meeting of the History of Science Society, held in New Orleans. Three others associated with Williams College and the history of science also attended the meeting, making the Williams' presence relatively prominent: (University of Georgia) Prof. Edward J. Larsen `76, Helen Rozwadowski `87, and Alex Pang, Bolin Fellow 1987-88.

In January 1995, Prof. Beaver again gave an informal evening presentation to Dr. Michael Paynes' Winter Study premedical students, on the Social History of American Medicine. On April 18, as part of Earth Week activities, he gave an informal lunch talk on Technology and the Environment to a small but highly participatory audience.

During spring break in March, and again just after classes in May, Prof. Beaver traveled to London and Paris to complete his research for a biography of Mrs. Robert Lee [nee Sarah Wallis, formerly Mrs. T. E. Bowdich] (1791-1856), first woman ever to discover new genera of plants, a skilled naturalist, voyager, author, and painter.

Prof. Beaver attended the Fifth Biennial Conference of the International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics, held at Rosary College in Forest Park, Illinois, June 14-17.

The remainder of June was to be spent in finishing the editing of "Science at Williams: the First 200 Years," a bicentennial overview constructed from students' papers written in the spring of 1992.

As usual, Professor Beaver continued to review and referee scholarly work during the year for the American Journal of Physics and Spectrum (journal of the IEEE.)


Modified by: bbabcock
Modification Date: December 13, 1995