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SCIENCE CENTER PROGRAMS

The recently completed Science Center now links the Bronfman Science Center with the Thompson Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Laboratories, Schow Library, and the Morley Science Laboratory wing; Clark Hall completes the Science Center complex. Serving as the home for astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, geosciences, history of science, mathematics and statistics, physics, and psychology, this facility fosters interdisciplinary interaction among all members of the Science Division. This interaction is facilitated through the sharing of core research equipment and services; through interdepartmental programs; and, to a great extent, by the spatial juxtaposition of faculty with common interests regardless of their departmental affiliation. Several Science Center activities promote this further by specifically encouraging discourse among scientists at Williams. This is carried out in a number of ways, including informal faculty presentations at Tuesday lunches (during both the summer and academic year), the maintenance of a weekly science calendar, the publication of the Report of Science at Williams, and the faculty lectures sponsored each semester by the local Sigma Xichapter.
The programs based in the Science Center encompass the coordination of grant proposals to federal agencies and private foundations, the distribution of more than $300,000 of research funds annually, and the allocation of space within the science division. In 2004-2005, individual Williams College science faculty received over $1,000,000 from active federal grants for the purchase of equipment and support of student-faculty research projects. The faculty and student research projects and summer research opportunities supported by internal divisional funds, as well as those supported by external grants, are detailed below and in the various departmental reports.

Summer Student Research Participation

Summer Research Fellowships were awarded to 178 individuals at Williams in 2005. Many of the summer research students are entering their senior year and beginning work that will lead to senior honors research. A large number of research fellowships were awarded to rising sophomores and juniors who were getting their first taste of independent research. The summer research program also included students from outside Williams. Students from a variety of other institutions were sponsored by an NSF/REU site grant to the mathematics and statistics department and worked with Williams College faculty members. As participants in a chemistry department exchange program, two students from the University of Leiden worked with chemistry professors at Williams while two Williams chemistry majors worked with professors at the University of Leiden.
The summer is a relaxed, yet concentrated time for research, without the competition of course work to interrupt collaborative efforts between students and faculty. In addition to the actual research experience, the Science Center sponsors a weekly Tuesday luncheon featuring a member of the faculty lecturing on current research, an annual science division picnic, and a poster session at the end of the summer where summer research students present their results.
Support for summer research, a $3400 stipend for 10 weeks plus housing, comes from a variety of sources including College funds, external grants to individual faculty, foundation grants, and endowed fellowships provided by generous donations from alumni and friends of the sciences. The Wege-Markgraf endowment, gifts from Peter Wege and the Class of 1952 in honor of J. Hodge Markgraf ’52, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, supports summer research fellowships in chemistry. The Betty and Lewis Somers ’48 Student Summer Internships Fund supports summer research fellowships in physics. The Williams Bicentennial Psychology Scholarship Fund supports summer research fellowships in psychology. The Whitehead Scholarship Fund, a gift from John Whitehead ’76, to provide an opportunity for Williams students and faculty to interact with scientists at the prestigious Whitehead Institute, supports summer research fellowships for Williams biology students to spend the summer doing research at the Whitehead Institute. The Arnold Bernhard Foundation Endowed Summer Science Fellows Program, made possible by the generosity of Jean Buttner, Williams Trustee from 1982-1997, supports summer research fellowships across the division.
Full or partial federal, foundation and alumni support for summer student stipends was provided by the following sources:
Source of Funding* Students
College funds
9
NSF grants to individual faculty
20
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
21
Arnold Bernhard Foundation Fellowships
45
Essel Foundation
13
NSF/REU
15
Hammond
2
Keck Geoscience
1
MA Space Grant
1
NASA
2
Pfizer
1
Class of 1951
5
Mellon Foundation
4
Wege/Markgraf Fellowships
6
Research Corporation
6
Whitehead Scholarship
2
Petroleum Research Fund
2
Somers Fellowship
5
Bicentennial Psychology Scholarships
2
Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium
2
Lowe Fellowship
3
Center for Environmental Studies
11
* Note: some students are supported by multiple grants.

2005 Summer Science Students and their Faculty Advisors

Astronomy

Megan Bruck
Jay Pasachoff
Matthew Johnson
Karen Kwitter
Kamen Kozarev
Jay Pasachoff
Jesse Levitt
Karen Kwitter
Anna Tsykalova
Jay Pasachoff
Joseph Gangestad
Jay Pasachoff
Owen Westbrook
Jay Pasacoff
Jennifer Yee
Jay Pasachoff
Biology

Ophelia Adipa
Wendy Raymond
Eric Bautista
Rob Savage
Benjamin Brown
Wilder
Ian Buchanan
Banta/Raymond
Ashley Burrell
Lara Hutson
Oliver Burton
Lois Banta
Margaret Carr
Heather Williams
Shuo Chen
Claire Ting
Shannon Chiu
Lois Banta
Cailin Collins
Wendy Raymond
Ellen Crocker
Joan Edwards
Jessica Davis
Lois Banta
Eugenie Du
Steve Swoap
Mildred Duvet
Rob Savage
Meritt Edlind
Dan Lynch
Alana Frost
Claire Ting
Meredith Gansner
David Smith
Pamela Good
Lara Hutson
John Greeley
Rob Savage
Clara Hard
Joan Edwards
Meagan Harrington
Dan Lynch
Patrick Huffer
Manuel Morales
Mary Iaculli
Rob Savage
Daniel Klein
Manuel Morales
Tomoki Kurihara
Lara Hutson
Erika Latham
Laurel Pritchard
Elise Leduc
Manuel Morales
Leroy Lindsay
Wendy Raymond
Gape Machao
Dan Lynch
Katherine Majzoub
Rob Savage
James Marlow
Hank Art
Sarah Martin
Joan Edwards
Danai Masarurwa
Wendy Raymond
Jared Mayers
Dan Lynch
Abigail McBride
Hank Art
Lauren Moscoe
Joan Edwards
Elizabeth Preston
Dan Lynch
James Prevas
Marsha Altschuler
Christopher Richardson
Dan Lynch
Esa Seegulam
Lois Banta
Lisetta Shah
David Smith
Tynisha Smalls
Rob Savage
Lauri Smassanow
Steve Swoap
Gillian Sowden
Steve Swoap
Sesh Sundararaman
Claire Ting
Gregory Walker
Steve Zottoli
William Wetzel
Hank Art
Tina Wong
Steve Zottoli
Jarrad Wood
Rob Savage
Devin Yagel
Dan Lynch
Chemistry

Stephen Acton
Hodge Markgraf
Oloruntosin Adeyanju
Lee Park
Aashish Adhikari
Leiden
Syed Akhtar
E. Peacock-Lopez
Marie-Christine Andre
Chip Lovett
Mary Anzovino
Sarah Goh
Matthew Baron
Sarah Goh
Jing Cao
Chip Lovett
Jessica Chung
Lee Park
Sarah Connell
Amy Gehring
Abelee Esparza
Skinner
Sarah Fink
Tom Smith
Tyler Gray
Hodge Markgraf
Lu Hong
Hodge Markgraf
Dan Jamorabo
Chip Lovett
Geertje Janssen
Sarah Goh
Tammy Kim
Chip Lovett
Thomas Koperniak
Chip Lovett
Wen-Hsin Kuo
Tom Smith
Andrew Lee
Lee Park
Noah Lindquist
Amy Gehring
Branden Mirach
Chip Lovett
Manuel Moutinho
Richardson/Thoman
Geoffrey O'Donoghue
Jay Thoman
William Parsons
Sarah Goh
Benjamin Rudick
Dieter Bingemann
Brian Saar
Jay Thoman
Devin Schweppe
Chip Lovett
Rachel Selinsky
Lee Park
Joseph Song
Amy Gehring
Analia Sorribas
David Richardson
Elizabeth Spragins
Chip Lovett
Daniel Suess
Tom Smith
John Symanski
Richardson/Thoman
Ashleigh Theberge
Dieter Bingemann
Christopher Thom
Chip Lovett
Gregory Tobkin
Amy Gehring
Computer Science

Brendan Dougherty
Tom Murtagh
Brian Hirshman
Duane Bailey
Neal Holtschulte
Stacia Wyman
Reid Lynch
Duane Bailey
Bartolome Tablante
Jim Teresco
Geosciences

Alicia Arevalos
Heather Stoll
Tyler Auer
Heather Stoll
Andrea Burke
Heather Stoll
Tyler Corson-Rikert
Dethier
Emily Fetig
Bud Wobus
Elizabeth Gress
Ronadh Cox
Eleanor Schmidt
Ronadh Cox
Ashley Sewell
Stewart Johnson
Mathematics

Elizabeth Adams
Frank Morgan
John Chatlos
Susan Loepp
Diana Davis
Frank Morgan
Carl Erickson
Allison Pacelli
Jesse Gell-Redman
Ed Burger
Nathan Kaplan
Allison Pacelli
Thomas Kindred
Colin Adams
James Kingsbery
Cesar Silva
Ross Kravitz
Ed Burger
Michelle Lee
Frank Morgan
Alexand Levin
Cesar Silva
Neil Mendoza
Allison Pacelli
Anatoly Preygel
Cesar Silva
Todd Shayler
Allison Pacelli
Brian Simanek
Susan Loepp
Regina Visocchi
Frank Morgan
Daniel Walton
Ed Burger
Nate Watson
Susan Loepp
Sherry Wu
Susan Loepp
Nicholas Yates
Ed Burger
Physics

Justin Brown
Dwight Whitaker
David Butts
Tiku Majumder
Samuel Clapp
Sarah Bolton
Robert Cooper
Daniel Aalberts
Creston Herold
Sarah Bolton
Utsav KC
Tucker-Smith
Joseph Kerckhoff
Tiku Majumder
Paul Lindemann
Dwight Whitaker
Evan Miller
Daniel Aalberts
Brian Munroe
Dwight Whitaker
Norman Nicolson
Tiku Majumder
Margaret Pigman
Tiku Majumder
Toby Schneider
Jeff Strait
Arjun Sharma
Dwight Whitaker
Joseph Shoer
Jeff Strait
Owen Simpson
Tucker-Smith
Daniel Sussman
Tiku Majumder
Robert Terchunian
Daniel Aalberts
Irina Zhecheva
Tiku Majumder
Psychology

Ian Barbash
Paul Solomon
Eric Bautista
Noah Sandstrom
Marita Campos-Melady
Safa Zaki
Julie Esteves
Betty Zimmerberg
Geshri Gunasekera
Noah Sandstrom
Elizabeth Killien
Betty Zimmerberg
Matthew Kugler
Al Goethals
Justin Lavner
Laurie Heatherington
Mary Lindeke
Bob Kavanaugh
James Matthews
Steve Fein
Tamieka McLean
Steve Fein
Devon O'Rourke
Betty Zimmerberg
Sara Ossi
Safa Zaki
Phillip Raab
Ari Solomon
Magali Rowan
Noah Sandstrom
Kyle Skor
Bob Kavanaugh
Tamara Springle
Laurie Heatherington
Amanda van Rhyn
Laurel Pritchard
Lauren Williamson
Noah Sandstrom
Lindsey Wu
Paul Solomon

Summer Research Colloquia 2005

A luncheon is provided every Tuesday for participants in the Summer Science Program. Faculty members from the science departments give talks on their research at these lunches, with opportunity for discussion afterwards. The speakers this summer were:
Professor Anne Skinner, Department of Chemistry, Williams College
“Be Afraid - Be Very Afraid”
Professor Jay Pasachoff, Astronomy Department, Williams College
“The Transit of Venus”
Professor Henry W. Art, Biology Department, Williams College
“Just How Hairy Is the Honeysuckle on Pine Cobble?”
Professor Frank Morgan, Mathematics Department, Williams College
“Math Jamboree: The Fun Part of What It Means to Be a Mathematician”
Professor Heather Stoll, Geosciences Department, Williams College
“Coccoliths and Climate Change: The Big Story from the Smallest Fossils”
Professors Colin Adams and Thomas Garrity, Mathematics Department, Williams College
“The Great Pi/e Debate”
Professor Chip Lovett, Chemistry Department, Williams College
“Turning On DNA Genes”
Professor Ronadh Cox, Geosciences Department, Williams College
“Big Holes in the Ground”

Academic Year Science Lunch Colloquia

During the academic year, the science faculty meets for lunch on Tuesdays in the Science Center to discuss matters of interest to the sciences as a whole, and to hear informal reports on faculty research and other science developments. The following talks or discussions were held during 2004-2005.
Professor Wendy Raymond, Department of Biology, Williams College
“Our 2004-2008 Undergraduate Science Foundation Program Grant from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute”
Professor Sarah Goh, Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, Williams College
“Biodegradable Polymers in Drug Delivery Applications”
Professor Stacia Wyman, Department of Computer Science, Williams College
“DOGMA: Algorithms for Analyzing Organellar Genomes”
Professor Allison Pacelli, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Williams College
“Election Day: What Does Your Vote Really Mean?”
Professor Jim Teresco, Department of Computer Science, Williams College
“Resource-Aware Parallel Computation”
Professor Bernhard Klingenberg, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Williams College
“Correlated Discrete Data in Biostatistical Applications”
Professor Steve Swoap, Department of Biology, Williams College
“A Long Winter’s Nap”
Professor Duane Bailey, Department of Computer Science, Williams College
“Cellular Life and Computation”
Professor Hodge Markgraf, Department of Chemistry, Williams College
“The Science of Chocolate”
Charley Stevenson, Health Professions Advisor, Williams College
“One in Ten: Ephs and Health Professions”
Joel Blickstein,
“Beware the New/New Standards: What Students Won’t Know When They Come to You”
Professor Lee Park, Department of Chemistry
“Designing and Aligning Molecular Wires”
Professor Lois Banta, Department of Biology
“The Wrath of Grapes: Plant Defenses Against Cancer-Causing Bacteria, from Garden to Genomics”
Professor Alan Walton, Department of Physics
“From Babbling Brooks to Fusion”
Professor David Dethier, Department of Geosciences
“Minding Our Groundwater”

Pre-First Year Summer Science Program

In its nineteenth summer in 2005, the Summer Science Program (SSP) provides an enriching and intensive five-week immersion in science, mathematics, and English for a talented group of science-oriented incoming Williams students. SSP targets members of groups that have been historically underrepresented in the sciences, and the goal of the program is to promote and encourage continuing participation by SSP students in science and science related studies at Williams and ultimately careers in research science and science education.
Nineteen students took classes in chemistry (including a major laboratory component), biology, mathematics and English (literature and expository writing). Although not replicas of Williams’ academic year offerings, the Summer Science Program classes are taught at a college level, thus introducing participants to the rigors and demands of college academics. In addition to the regular classes, the students participated in geology laboratory and field experiments. They also engaged in a variety of extracurricular activities, including the Williamstown Theatre Festival, and a weekend trip to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Enthusiasm for the program has been high. Participants have taken full advantage of the opportunity to study at Williams in the summer. As a result of the Summer Science Program, their academic year experiences have been successful and many of the students have continued their studies in science or mathematics. A significant number of former participants have returned to campus in the summertime as summer research students in science and mathematics, have become tutors for the Summer Science Program, or have secured positions elsewhere in science research institutes.
Professor Charles M. Lovett, Director of the Summer Science Program, taught the chemistry lectures and Professor David P. Richardson conducted the laboratory sessions. Professors Olga R. Beaver and Cesar Silva taught the mathematics component. Professors Lara Hutson and Daniel Lynch taught the biology lectures. Professor D.L. Smith taught the English sessions and Professor David Dethier conducted the geology-in-the-field laboratory.
The Summer Science Program has been funded primarily by Williams College as part of the institution’s commitment to encourage the participation of traditionally underrepresented groups in the sciences. Since 1991, SSP has received additional funding from a biological sciences award from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This grant contributed support for several SSP components, and has provided summer research stipends for SSP students after their first year at Williams. Special thanks go to the many science faculty and students of Williams College who, during the summer as well as during the academic year, have contributed to the success of the program and of its participants.

Pre-First Year Summer Science Program Participants

Students
Faculty
Samantha Barbaro
Scott K. Tamura
Charles M. Lovett, Director
Kimberly S. Elicker
John T. Vu
Olga R. Beaver
Natalia M. Gonzales
Sarah Willey
Lara Hudson
Aaron Hudson
Taylor Wilson-Hill
Daniel Lynch
Henry E. Kernan
Gabrielle N. Woodson
Wendy Raymond
Lyndsay K. Lau

David Richardson
Matthew T. Limpar

Cesar Silva
Salvador Lopez

David L. Smith
Claudia M. Lord

Tutors
James W. Lowe, Jr.

Adam Banasiak ‘08
John J. Salcedo

Sergio Marte ‘08
Norman M. Scott

Ana Pacheco-Navarro ‘08
Catherine O.E. Small

Amy Steele ‘08

Williams College Sigma Xi Chapter

The Williams College Sigma Xi Chapter has played an active role on the Williams Campus since it was founded as the Sigma Xi Club in 1969. Sigma Xi is a national society honoring and encouraging research in science. The Williams Chapter also sponsors outreach programs designed to stimulate interest in science among grade school, junior high and high school students. The officers for 2004-2005 were Professor Jay M. Pasachoff of the Astronomy Department, President, and Professor Protik Majumder of the Physics Department, Secretary/Treasurer.
During the 2004-2005 academic year, our chapter held the traditional fall and spring Sigma Xi lecture series. In the fall, Satyan Devadoss of the Mathematics and Statistics Department delivered a pair of lectures on analysis of phylogenic trees and robotic motion via mathematics. In the first lecture, Prof. Devadoss discussed visual mathematical tools that can aid in understanding trees such as those underlying phylogenic and evolutionary development. The second lecture focused on the analysis and classification of elementary robotic motion, collisions, and interactions. In the spring, Donald Beaver of the History of Science Department presented lectures on the history of scientific productivity. The first lecture discussed general patterns of productivity over the past two centuries. In the second lecture, he discussed the transformation from single-author to collaborative style research, and used the recent history of scientific publication at Williams College as an example.
The Sigma Xi Chapter sponsored a High School Science Award for a student at Mount Greylock Regional High School, Williamstown, MA, in recognition of a high level of motivation and accomplishment in science courses. This year the award was given to Carl Kubler.
One of the primary purposes of Sigma Xi is to recognize graduating science students who have demonstrated exceptional ability and promise for further contributions to the advancement of scientific research. These students are elected as Associate Members of Sigma Xi and are then inducted into the Society at a ceremony during Commencement Weekend. On Class Day, the Chapter honored 42 newly elected Associate Members from the Class of 2005 in a ceremony in the Bronfman Auditorium. The names of this year’s honorees are listed below and a detailed description of the research projects of these students is presented in the Student Abstracts section of this Report.

Associate Sigma Xi members from the Class of 2005

Astrophysics

Kamen A. Kozarev
J. Pasachoff
Biology

Anna C. Brosius
W. Raymond
Jeffrey T. Dougherty
D. Lynch
Christopher D. Eaton
J. Edwards
Meghan E. Giuliano
L. Banta
E. A. Hambleton
C. Ting
Bryce G. Inman
C. Ting
Cameron M. Marshall
L. Hutson
Daniel E. Runcie
D. Smith
Molly R. Sharlach
L. Banta
Jasmine S. Smith
H. Art
Chemistry

Noah S. Bell
L. Park
James A. Enterkin
M. Schofield
Renee Kontnik
A. Gehring
Elizabeth C. Landis
L. Park
Edward A. McGehee
E. Peacock-Lopez
Brian G. Saar
J. Thoman
Geosciences

Alicia L. Arevalos
H. Stoll
Jennifer E. Campbell
D. Dethier
Ryan P. Gordon
P. Karabinos
Robert S. Hahn
D. Dethier
Paul A. Skudder III
M. Johnson
Susanna M. Theroux
H. Stoll
Mathematics

Andrew Marder
T. Garrity
Stephen S. Moseley
S. Johnson
John C. Mugno
S. Devadoss
Ashok M. Pillai
E. Burger
Jordan S. Rodu
S. Johnson
Matthew P. Spencer
A. Pacelli
Physics

John A. BackusMayes
D. Tucker-Smith
Justin M. Brown
D. Whitaker
Colin D. Bruzewicz
P. Majumder
Joshua H. Cooperman
R.A. Wobus
Joseph A. Kerckhoff
P. Majumder
Aubryn Murray
J. Strait
Sean P. O'Brien
D. Tucker-Smith
Jennifer E. Simmons
S. Bolton
Psychology

Rebecca M. Allen
K. Savitsky
Matthew B. Kugler
A. Goethals
Rui Nie
L. Heatherington
Lydia J. Romano
M. Sandstrom
John D. Rudoy
N. Sandstrom
Amy D. Shelton
K. Savitsky