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BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT

The biological sciences are in a constant state of flux and the Biology Department at Williams is always striving to meet the demand of an ever changing and growing scientific community. To that end, the department interacts closely with several interdisciplinary programs on campus: the BIMO Program, the Neuroscience Program, the Environmental Studies Program and, just recently, a new program called BIGP (Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics). Providing students with the opportunity to do hands-on, one-on-one research with a professor has always been one of the department’s goals in addition to offering state of the art academic courses. The fact that the department had 16 honors students working in faculty labs this past year is further evidence of this. This year, the department has a record number of students (51) doing summer research both here and at other institutions as well as abroad. Among the students doing research this summer, Jared Mayers and Devin Yagel will be working at the Whitehead Institute, and Ian Buchanan will be working at MIT (sponsored by Howard Hughes Medical Institute). The work done at the Whitehead this summer will be continued in a month long study during January. Funding for this research comes from a number of resources including individual research grants, HHMI and Divisional funding. At least half of the biology faculty have outside research funding either from NSF or NIH. This past year over one million dollars in new grants were awarded to Biology faculty. Faculty research by Professors Swoap and Edwards have received national and international notice. Alumni returned to campus on two occasions this year to share their post-graduate experiences with students. These included former students currently in graduate schools at The University of California, San Francisco, The University of Chicago, and The University of Michigan. Other returning alumni have used their biology backgrounds to pursue careers in bioinformatics, ecotourism and education.
Each year at graduation, the Biology Department awards prizes to several outstanding majors. Daniel Runcie and Maria (Kate) Henry received the Benedict Prize in Biology. Anna Brosius received the Conant-Harrington prize for exemplary performance in the biology major. Elizabeth Hambleton, received the Dwight Prize for excellence in Botany, and Jasmine Smith received the Grant Prize for demonstrating excellence in a broad range of areas in biology.
The department is pleased to welcome a new faculty member, Jason Wilder – Williams ’97. Jason comes to us from University of Arizona in Tucson. His expertise is in the area evolutionary biology. This past year the department also welcomed Derek Dean as a full-time lab instructor in Biology. Derek comes to us from Cornell University. The department will also see the departure of Brian Spitzer – Williams ’99 and Paul Patton (University of Illinois – Urbana) who were visiting professors for the spring semester. Brian taught the Communities and Ecosystems (BIOL 302) course and Paul taught a new one-semester course, Neuroethology (BIOL 316).
The Biology Department continued to participate in the Class of 1960 Scholars Program. Several distinguished scientists were invited to meet with students and faculty. Among those invited were Dr. Teresa Dunn, Uniformed Services University; Dr. Vivian Irish, Yale University; and Dr. Jeffrey Lichtman, Harvard University Thirteen students were selected to be Class of 1960 Scholars for the spring/fall 2005.
Class of 1960 Scholars in Biology
Alejandro Acosta
Ian Buchanan
Oliver Burton
Merritt Edlind
Alexandra Grier
Tomoki Kirihara
Katherine Larabee
Elise Leduc
Margaret Lowenstein
Jared Mayers
J. Pulst-Korenberg
Elizabeth Welsh
Ellen Wilk

Professor Altschuler taught Genetics (BIOL 202) in the fall semester and Human Biology and Social Issues (BIOL 132) in the spring. In both classes the learning experience was enriched by the experiences and interests of students in the class — either their personal familiarity with the inherited conditions or ethical questions we studied, or their work experiences in genetics or cancer research labs, or their having relatives involved in decision-making processes in areas of bioterrorism, biotechnology investment, patent law, patients’ rights, etc. The exchange of ideas between faculty member and students was rewarding on both ends of “the log.” <www.williams.edu/library/archives/williamshistory/greylock/mhopkins.html> Professor Altschuler also “savored” the opportunity to defend the virtues of the latke in the College’s annual Latke-Hamantaschen Debate.
The focus of research in the Altschuler lab is the elucidation of functions involved in chromosome maintenance and genome balance in the amitotically dividing Tetrahymena thermophila macronucleus. Vectors are being designed that will cause the deletion of the ends of individual chromosomes via homologous recombination and telomere addition; the consequences of such deletions are then studied for effects on phenotype and on chromosome copy number. Dan Lieberman ’05, Jim Prevas 06, and Stephanie Vano ‘06 joined the lab during summer 2004 and contributed to the construction of the fragmentation vectors and analysis of transformants obtained by former honors student, Mary Flynn ‘04. Dan’s research continued in the fall semester, and Michael Leparc ’05 carried out independent research for the academic year using the newly available Tetrahymena Genome Database <www.tigr.org/tdb/e2k1/ttg/> as a resource to decide on chromosomes to target for analysis and to design PCR primers for analysis of transformants. Alexandra Grier ’06 worked in the lab throughout the year carrying out a diverse range of projects in support of the genome fragmentation project—pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, probe labeling and Southern hybridizations, and genomic PCRs. It was a busy year in the Altschuler lab with many students making contributions to our ongoing efforts.
Visiting Associate Professor Lois Banta received a $330,000 grant from the National Science Foundation for her research on the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This plant pathogen is best known for its unique ability to deliver DNA and proteins to host plant cells, thus stably altering the genetic makeup of the plant and causing crown gall tumors to form at the infection site. The transport machinery, comprised of multiple VirB proteins and VirD4, is the prototype for several similar systems required for other clinically important bacteria to cause disease in their mammalian hosts. The goal of the research funded by the three-year grant is to investigate the role of two proteins,VirC1 and VirC2, in the regulation of substrate delivery by the VirB/D4 secretion apparatus. One of the honors students in the lab, Molly Sharlach ‘05 worked on purifying the VirC1 protein, which the Banta lab has hypothesized plays a role in enhancing the specificity of the transport machinery for the DNA substrate. Post-doctoral fellow Mardi Crane-Godreau also participated in this project. A second Honors student, Meghan Giuliano ’05, continued her exploration of a novel mechanism for regulation of transcription of a subset of the virB genes. Summer student and WCURF fellow Jessica Davis ’06 pursued a project she had started the previous summer, investigating a possible role for host plant endocytosis in virulence factor uptake. Another summer student, Ian Buchanan ’07, initiated a new project, using scanning electron microscopy to assess the contribution of various Vir proteins to polar attachment by the bacteria to the host plant cells. All four students presented posters at the 25th Annual Crown Gall meeting in August 2004.
Banta taught Cellular Regulatory Mechanisms (BIOL 306) in the fall and Microbiology: Diversity, Cellular Physiology, and Interactions (BIOL 315) in the spring. Investigative labs contributing to actual research projects were a central feature of both courses. The 12 students in Biology 306 carried out a semester-long project on the role of VirC1 in enhancing the efficiency of substrate delivery to host plants. The students constructed virC mutants and then used macroarray analysis, comparing tobacco defense responses to wild-type versus virC mutant agrobacteria. Over Winter Study, Didem Ilter ’08, Eric Bautista ’08, and James Kim ’08 continued this project. Additionally, as part of a consortium dedicated to an NSF-funded project to sequence and annotate the genomes of two additional Agrobacterium biovars, students in both courses contributed to the annotation of the Agrobacterium vitis genome, and over half the students in Microbiology pursued independent projects that, collectively, defined at a genomic level the pathway for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in A. vitis.
During this academic year, Banta served as a panelist, reviewing grants for the National Science Foundation, and also served as reviewer for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and the Consortium for Plant Biotechnology. She gave a guest lecture in the physics course, “Science and Pseudo-Science,” and served on the Biochemistry/Molecular Biology advisory committee, the Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics advisory committee, the curriculum subcommittee at the Center for Environmental Studies, and the Women’s and Gender Studies Advisory Committee.
Professor Joan Edwards taught Ecology (BIOL 203) in the fall and Field Botany (BIOL 220) in the spring. She continues with field research at Isle Royale National park. Last summer, Chris Eaton ’05 worked with her on his senior thesis on the ecology of the sawfly, Empria obscurata, which has transparent larvae that turn the color of the food they eat. Don Mitchell ’06 and Alejandro Acosta ’06 assisted with lab and field studies of Cornus Canadensis from Isle Royale and Alharia petiolata (garlic mustard) in Hopkins forest in Williamstown.
Edwards along with co-authors Dwight Whitaker (Physics Department), Sarah Klionsky ’03, and Marta Laskowski (Biology Department, Oberlin College) published a paper on the exploding flowers of Cornus Canadensis (bunchberry or Canada dogwood) in the May 12 issue of Nature. The paper reported on the flower behavior of Cornus Canadensis. High speed video (10,000fps) showed that the flowers of bunchberry use stored elastic energy to open in < 0.5ms and the stamens which function like miniature trebuchets, accelerate the pollen at 24,000 m/s2 (2400g’s). The rapid opening earned Cornus Canadensis an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records (to be printed in the 2007 edition). Newspapers, radio shows and television shows on six different continents picked up on the bunchberry story.
During the fall, Assistant Professor Lara Hutson taught The Cell (Biology 101). In the spring, she took maternity leave. Though on maternity leave for one semester, Hutson had a particularly active year for research in the lab. During the summer of 2004, five students joined the lab—Cameron Marshall ’05, Adrian Salinas ’05, Andrew Levy ’05, Kathryn Fromson ’06, and Meghan Ryan ’06. One of these students, Kathryn Fromson, presented a poster of her work at the International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics in August. At that same meeting, Hutson presented the work of her former honors student, Courtney Juliano, and summer student, Adrian Salinas, in a poster. During the 2004-2005 academic year Cameron Marshall ’05 continued in the lab to do his honors thesis, Andrew Levy ’05 did an independent study project, and Kathryn Fromson ’06 worked as a research assistant. As a result of Cameron’s hard work and the efforts of Maria Recco, a technician in the laboratory, the first transgenic zebrafish line was generated, which expresses green fluorescent protein specifically in the developing nervous system. This line will be very useful for assaying the effects of genetic or environmental perturbations on nervous system development.
In the fall, a laser scanning confocal microscope was purchased using Class of 1958 faculty enhancement funds. This instrument allows for high-resolution 3D imaging of fixed and living samples. The Hutson lab has already begun to generate data using the confocal, and it will be valuable to her research for years to come. Hutson also received a 3-year $495,000 National Eye Institute (NIH) R03 Small grants for pilot research for her proposal, “Small Heat Shock Proteins and Retinotectal Development.” During the past year, Hutson also reviewed several manuscripts and was ad hoc reviewer for two NSF grants. She was also co-author on two publications that came out this past year.
During this past year, Professor Dan Lynch taught two courses in the spring semester, a sophomore tutorial, Genomes, Transcriptomes and Proteomes (BIOL 206), and the BIMO program senior seminar, Topics in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, co-taught with professor Amy Gehring of the Chemistry Department.
Lynch continued his research on plant sphingolipid biochemistry, supported by a four-year grant from the National Science Foundation for a collaborative project titled “The Synthesis and Function of Arabidopsis Thaliana Sphingolipids.” This is part of the 2010 project at the NSF to characterize the approximately 26,000 genes in the model plant Arabidopsis. This collaboration includes Professor Wendy Raymond of the Biology Department, as well as Teresa Dunn at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, MD and Jan Jaworski and Ed Cahoon at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, MO. In July, Lynch hosted a meeting of all the participants from the collaborating labs for three days at Williams College, providing an opportunity for Williams students to participate and present talks on their projects. Students working in the lab during the summer included Jeff Dougherty, Aaron Marshall, Sarah Ginsburg and Marianna Uribe. During the academic year, Jeff Dougherty and Stephen Kelleher completed senior thesis projects in the lab. Lynch was co-author on a paper appearing in Plant Physiology, and he also served as a reviewer for several journals including Plant Physiology, Plant Cell, and Biochimica et Biophysica Acta and for the NSF and USDA as well as European scientific funding agencies.
Summer 2004 brought three students into Associate Professor Wendy Raymond’s research laboratory, Matt Keegan ’08; thesis student Anna Brosius ’05, and Mellon Minority Undergraduate Research Fellow M. Esa Seegulam ’06. Matt worked on a collaborative project with Dan Lynch’s laboratory, using yeast as a tool for discovering plant genes that encode sphingolipid metabolism enzymes. Anna and Esa analyzed results from David Arnolds ’04 and Rebecca Kiselewich ’04 to discover novel genetic interactions among five enzymes that modify transfer RNA (tRNA).
In the fall of 2004, Professor Raymond taught (BIOL 101) The Cell. She began her tenure as Program Director for the College’s Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), while continuing as a research mentor to Anna and Esa. At the biannual HHMI Directors/Program Directors meeting held in Chevy Chase, Maryland in October 2004, Professor Raymond chaired a session on “Faculty Challenges to Mentoring Research Students”. In addition, she initiated a successful collaborative effort to mount three national symposia on effective practices in mentoring underrepresented minority students in science. These symposia, jointly sponsored by HHMI, Harvard University, University of Louisiana at Monroe, and the University of Washington, seek to disseminate these best practices to institutions primed to make a difference in the early college science educations of first-generation college students, students from low-income families, women, and underrepresented ethnic groups.
In spring 2005, Professor Raymond led a reading group on “Diversity in the Sciences” sponsored by the Multicultural Center. Joining her in this effort to learn about effective retention and mentoring practices were Claire Ting, Biology; Tiku Majumder, Physics; Chip Lovett, Chemistry; and Molly Magavern, Office of Special Academic Programs. We will present our findings to Division III faculty in the summer and fall of 2005 in an effort to make Williams a leader in supporting underrepresented students in the sciences. Professor Raymond also participated in the spring Faculty Lecture Series with a talk entitled: “Fossils in Action: Living Links to Earth’s Ancient RNA World”.
This past year Associate Professor Rob Savage continued his research on the development and evolution of segmentation in annelids while on sabbatical. In August 2004, he was awarded a three-year $293,000 grant by the National Institutes of Health to support his project entitled “Segmental Pattern Formation in Annelids”. Williams College students Ian Warrington ’03 and Cameron Marshall '05 generated the preliminary data for Aim 3 of the grant in which they isolated mRNA from over 28,000 annelid embryos over the course of a summer. Their hard work garnered high quality raw material that was later used to generate three separate subtraction cDNA libraries this past spring. Currently we are analyzing the sequences from 14,000 clones and have already identified a number of previously uncharacterized developmental regulatory genes that are expressed during leech and polychaete embryogenesis. In May 2005, NIH awarded Rob Savage a supplemental grant of $50,000 to defray the high costs of sequencing.
Jamie Pinnell ’04, Paul Lindemann ’06, and Sierra Colavito ’02 were contributing authors on a manuscript that Prof. Savage recently submitted to the journal Evolution and Development. Savage served on two NIH panels and one NSF panel. He also served as an external reviewer for the NSF and the journal Evolution and Development.
David C. Smith taught Evolution (BIOL 305) in the fall and The Organism (BIOL 102) in the spring with Claire Ting. He continues work on the long-term population dynamics of the Boreal Arbors frog on Isle Royale National Park completing his 26th field season in 2004 where Daniel Runcie ’05 also worked gathering data for his senior thesis.
In the fall of 2004, Associate Professor Steve Swoap taught Mammalian Molecular Physiology (Biology 409). In the spring of 2005, he taught Biochemistry II - Metabolism (BIMO 322). Swoap attended three national meetings this last year, including Experimental Biology ’05, joined by all three of his thesis students, Liz Gluck ’05, Ross Smith ’05, and Candice Li ’05. All three students presented their thesis work at this meeting in San Diego, Ca. Liz won the David Bruce Award for top undergraduate physiology presentation. Ross was one of the finalists for the same award. Swoap served as a reviewer for numerous journals over the past year, including for the American Journal of Physiology: Heart, American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Journal of Cell Biology, Advances in Physiology Education, and the Journal of Applied Physiology. Swoap is an active reviewer of grants for the National Science Foundation Career Award. Swoap was also chair of the Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Program at Williams College, as well as the chair of the
images/Repsci200503.jpg
Seniors Candice Li, Liz Gluck, and Ross Smith present their research at the Experimental Biology ‘05 meeting in San Diego.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
Swoap has continued his series of articles for the publication, Health Quarterly <www.healthquarterly.com/>. This series on the “Biology of the Bulge” for the non-scientist focuses on the science of obesity and weight loss. Recent titles include “Love your fat?” in autumn 2004, “When a good fat goes bad” in winter 2004, “Why do we eat?” in spring 2005, and “Setting the record straight” in summer 2005. Swoap currently has an active NSF grant: “CAREER: Mechanisms of caloric-restriction induced hypotension”.
Assistant Professor Claire Ting taught Integrative Plant Biology: Fundamentals and New Frontiers (BIOL 308) in the fall and the spring semester sequence introductory biology course, The Organism (BIOL 102), with David Smith. In addition, Asst. Professor Ting and her research students actively continued investigating how genomic differences between closely related photosynthetic organisms translate into selective physiological advantages in photosynthetic capacity and in tolerance to abiotic stress. In the summer of 2004, Bryce Inman ’05, Emily Russell-Roy ’06, and Alana Frost ’06, examined the effects of temperature and light stress on the photosynthetic apparatus and cellular architecture of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, two of the most abundant photosynthetic microorganisms found in the world’s oceans. During the summer, her laboratory also hosted four Berkshire County high school students as part of the Biology Department’s outreach program funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. As a senior, Bryce continued working in Asst. Professor Ting’s lab and completed his honors thesis research, and Alana also continued her research in the lab as a Williams College Undergraduate Research Fellowship recipient. They were joined by senior Elizabeth Hambleton, who also completed her honors thesis research, and by freshman Sesh Sundararaman, who worked on an ongoing collaborative project between the Ting Lab and the Mannella Lab (Division of Molecular Medicine, Wadsworth Center, Albany).
In the spring of 2005, Asst. Professor Ting participated in a Multicultural Center sponsored weekly discussion group chaired by Wendy Raymond on “Underrepresented Graduate Students in the Sciences”, and also participated in a Science Faculty Forum on mentoring in the sciences sponsored by the Consortium on High Achievement and Success at Mount Holyoke College. During the academic year, Asst. Professor Ting also served as a reviewer for professional journals and as an external reviewer for the National Science Foundation.
Steve Zottoli taught Introduction to Neuroscience (BIOL 212) in the fall and Animal Physiology (BIOL 205) in the spring. An independent laboratory project was integrated into the laboratory of both courses. He directed the HHMI grant to Williams College until the end of August when Professor Wendy Raymond took over as director.
Last summer, Zottoli directed the Williams College Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) program, which was funded by Howard and Nan Schow, the HHMI grant, and the Essel Foundation grant to Williams. Six students spent 9 weeks at the MBL attending lectures, seminars and participating in an original research project. At the MBL, Zottoli served as a member of the search committee for a director of the MBL. He continued as a faculty member of the SPINES (Summer Program in Neuroscience, Ethics and Survival) course at the MBL. He continued as the President of The Grass Foundation, a not-for-profit philanthropic organization that funds various programs in neuroscience.
DEPARTMENT COLLOQUIA
Henry W. Art, Williams College
“The Last 263 Years of the Hopkins Forest, or Why ‘He Is All Pine and I Am Apple Orchard’”
Barbara Baker, UC Berkeley
“Genetic and Genomic Studies on the Structure, Function and Evolution of R Genes: Phytosensors for Pathogen Recognition and Induction of Defense Responses”
Teresa Dunn, Uniformed Services University
Biology Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
Sphingolipids: Friend or Foe?”
Michael Gazzaniga, Dartmouth
“Neurobiology of Our Moral Compass”
Nathaniel Heintz, Rockefeller University
“Molecular Mechanisms of Brain Development and Dysfunction”
Vivian Irish, Yale University
Biology Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
“How to Make a Flower”
Len Kaczmarek, Yale University School of Medicine
Co-Sponsored by Neuroscience
“Gene-Targeted Deletion of Potassium Channels Produces ‘Super-Smeller Mice’”
David Lee, Florida International University
“The Science Behind Autumn Foliage Color Change”
Jeffrey Lichtman, Harvard University
Biology Class of 1960 Scholars Speaker
“Studying Synaptic Competition in Fluorescent Mice”
Damhnait McHugh, Colgate University
“A Segment of Worm History – A History of Worm Segments: Multi-Gene Analyses of Annelid Evolutionary Relationships”
Jenni Punt, Haverford College
“Living with Death: The Regulation of Nur77 in the Immune System”
Klaas van Wijk, Cornell University
“Plastic Proteomes in Arabidopsis and Maize”
David Weinshenker, Emory University School of Medicine
“Mechanisms of Treatment for Cocaine Addiction”
OFF-CAMPUS COLLOQUIA
Lois Banta
Agrobacterium tumefaciens: The Genetic Engineer in Your Own Backyard”
Amherst College, Amherst, MA
Meghan Giuliano ’05, Anne Newcomer ’04, Jacqueline Hom ’04, Ken-ichi Ueda ’03, Susan Levin ’02, and Lois Banta
“Characterization of a Putative Promotor Sequence Embedded within the virB operon of Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Poster presentation, Twenty-fifth Annual Crown Gall Conference, Champaign-Urbana, IL
Ian Buchanan ’07, Lois Banta
“Role of Host Cell Endocytosis in Transformation of Plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Poster presentation, Twenty-fifth Annual Crown Gall Conference, Champaign-Urbana, IL
Molly Sharlach ’05, Emily Hatch ’03, Virginia Newman ’04, Alice Hensley ’05, Praveen Rao, Stanton Gelvin, Lois Banta
“Role of the VirC1 Putative ATPase Motif in Virulence and Binding to Overdrive.
Poster presentation, Twenty-fifth Annual Crown Gall Conference, Champaign-Urbana, IL
CJ Juliano, ’04, A. Salinas ’05, LD Hutson
“HSP27 Is Required for the Development of Axonal Projections in the Zebrafish”
Poster presentation, 6th International Meeting on Zebrafish Development and Genetics, Madison, WI
KE Fromson ’06, LD Hutson
“Adaptation of the Heat Shock Response in Zebrafish Embryos”
Poster presentation, 6th International Meeting on Zebrafish Development and Genetics, Madison, WI
David E. W. Arnolds ’05, Anna C. Brosius ’05, M. Esa M. Seegulam ’06, Wendy Raymond
“Evolution and Function of tRNA: Why Is a Universally Conserved rRNA Modification Dispensable?”
Northeast Regional Yeast Meeting, Rochester, NY
David E. W. Arnolds ’05, Wendy Raymond
“Guaranteeing tRNA’s Function: pus4 Cellular Interactions Are Identified by Systematic Genetic Analysis”
Poster presentation, Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology Meeting, Seattle, WA
Rob Savage
“The Divergent Roles of the Segmentation Gene Hunchback in Annelids and Arthropods”
Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology Meeting, San Diego, CA
Steven J. Swoap
“Effect of Ambient Temperature and Food Availability on Mouse Cardiovascular Parameters”
Millennium Pharmaceuticals
“Biology of the Bulge”
Williamstown, MA, Alumni Talk and Faculty Club Talk
Claire Ting
“Genome Diversification in Marine Cyanobacteria: Implications for Photosynthetic Physiology and Environmental Stress Response Mechanisms”
13th International Photosynthesis Congress, Montreal Canada
“Marine Picophytoplankton in the Limelight: From Genomes to Primary Production”
Williams College-Mystic Seaport Biannual Visiting Scholar Lecture Series, Mystic, CT
“Optimal Photosynthesis and Abiotic Stress Responses in Marine Cyanobacteria: Insights from Minimal Genomes”
American Society of Plant Biologists, Northeastern Sectional Meeting on Plant Proteomics, Binghamton, NY
POSTGRADUATE PLANS OF DEPARTMENT MAJORS
Matthew Barhight
Unknown
Amber Berrings
Unknown
Kristin Bohnhorst
Unknown
Anna Brosius
Applying to medical school
Katherine Davisson
Either medical school or work for an MD
Carolyn Dekker
Unknown
Margaret Demment
Unknown
Jeffrey Dougherty
Research Tech for 2 years in the lab of Dr. Michael Starnbach, Dept. of Microbiology, Harvard Medical School then on to graduate school.
Christopher Eaton
University of Washington Alaska Salmon Program in Lake Aleknagik, Alaska; and PRETOMA - Sea Turtle Restoration Program, Costa Rica
Brittany Esty
Unknown
Margaret Gilmore
Working in Human Resources in Boston
Meghan Giuliano
Research Associate at Hydra Bioscience, Cambridge, MA then graduate school
Elizabeth Gluck
Research Assistant at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City; Applying to medical school
YiFan Guo
Medical School – University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Elizabeth Hambleton
Doing Research on Coral Diseases in Hawaii
Maria Henry
Applying to medical school
Alice Hensley
Unknown
Elizabeth Hodgman
Unknown
Bryce Inman
Working for non-profit organization in Colorado
Stephen Kelleher
Applying to medical school
Maria Kerr
Applying for research position
Ju Kim
Unknown
Kevin Koernig
Unknown
Michael Leparc
Applying for research position
Andrew Levy
Unknown
Candace Li
Unknown
Daniel Lieberman
Teaching in Costa Rica
Spencer Lutchen
Unknown
Cameron Marshall
Attending medical school
Kerri McMahon
Unknown
Sarah Meserve
Unknown
Julie O’Donnell
Pharmacy Technician at Salem Hospital, Salem, MA for a year; applying to pharmacy school to pursue doctorate of pharmacy
Chelsea Pollen
Year long internship at Williams Alumni Relations Office
Daniel Runcie
Unknown
Adrian Salinas
Unknown
Vivian Schoung
Unknown
Trevor Scott
Teaching Fellow in Biology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA then to Science
Molly Sharlach
Unknown
Jasmine Smith
Ph.D in Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Biomedical Graduate School
Ross Smith
Unknown
Oliver Starks
Unknown
Mary Stranghoener
Assistant Animal Trainer at Sea World, San Diego, CA
Susanna Theroux
Unknown
Chloe Turner
Teaching then applying to medical school
Tracey Van Kempen
Junior Essel Fellow in Neuroscience – Williams College
Zinnia Wilson
Unknown